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História de Topeka, Kansas

História de Topeka, Kansas


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Iniciada como um local para transportar trens de vagões através do Rio Kansas para destinos no oeste, Topeka, Kansas, continua sendo um centro de transporte para o sudoeste dos Estados Unidos. Localizada a cerca de 60 milhas a oeste de Kansas City na Interestadual 70, Topeka desempenhou um papel de liderança no território “Sangrando Kansas” antes de sua criação de estado. Hoje Topeka, cujo nome deriva da palavra indiana para “batatas” ou “um bom lugar para cultivar ou encontrar batatas”, é um importante ponto de embarque de gado e trigo e um centro de atacado, marketing e processamento de produtos agrícolas.

Depois de trabalhar em suas operações de balsa por vários anos, Joseph e Louis Papin decidiram formar uma cidade em dezembro de 1854. Construída como uma encruzilhada para trens de vagão indo para a Califórnia ao longo da Trilha do Oregon, muitos edifícios foram construídos às pressas na primavera seguinte, e os dois primeiros - um prédio de alvenaria de história, que mais tarde se tornou a casa da legislatura do estado livre, foi erguido. Os irmãos Papin operaram sua balsa até que uma ponte foi construída em 1857.

“Sangrando Kansas”

Também em 1854, enquanto as forças pró-escravidão estavam no poder, foi redigida a Constituição de Lecompton, que não permitia que os oponentes da escravidão votassem contra sua ratificação. Essa ação levou a lutas muitas vezes violentas no estado entre os abolicionistas e as forças escravistas do estado. Considerado um prelúdio da Guerra Civil, o termo "Bleeding Kansas" foi cunhado por Nova York Tribuna escritor Horace Greeley.

Depois que uma nova constituição antiescravista foi redigida e aprovada pelo eleitorado por uma margem de 2 para 1 em 1859, a questão foi resolvida. O Kansas entrou na União como um estado livre dois anos depois, com Topeka como sua capital.

Ferrovias deixam sua marca

Uma das maiores ferrovias dos Estados Unidos, a Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe, foi fretada pelo estado do Kansas em 1859 e organizada em 1860. A ideia do C.K. de Topeka Holliday, a construção da ferrovia não começou de fato até 1868, mas logo Atchison se tornou um hub, com oito linhas ferroviárias terminando na cidade em 1872. Comumente conhecida como "The Santa Fe", a linha ferroviária foi construída de Topeka a Santa Fe, Novo México e depois para o Golfo do México. A ferrovia exerceu grande influência na colonização do sudoeste dos Estados Unidos.

De 1880 a 1950, uma série de eventos que previram a fundação de Topeka ocorreram.

Durante a década de 1880, a população em Topeka triplicou, devido ao aumento do tráfego ferroviário. No início de 1887, a Rock Island Rail Lines assinou um contrato com a Union Pacific e a Chicago, Kansas and Nebraska Railway Company para uso conjunto da U.P. faixas entre Kansas City e North Topeka.

Em 1891, a Rock Island Rail Lines, que começou em La Salle, Illinois, em 1845, se estendia por cerca de 1.500 milhas através do Kansas, Nebraska e Colorado. Construído como uma réplica daquele em Washington, D.C., a construção do capitólio de Topeka foi concluída em 1907 e, em 1954, começou a construção do edifício de escritórios estaduais de US $ 9 milhões.

Brown vs. Conselho de Educação

Também em 1954, Topeka esteve envolvido no caso histórico da Suprema Corte dos Estados Unidos, Brown vs. Board of Education, que reverteu a regra de "separado, mas igual" referente a escolas segregadas. Em uma tentativa de obter oportunidades educacionais iguais para seus filhos, os líderes comunitários negros em Topeka tomaram medidas contra a segregação nas escolas dos Estados Unidos e venceram.

Auxiliado pela seção local da NAACP, um grupo de 13 pais entrou com uma ação coletiva contra o Conselho de Educação das Escolas de Topeka, que chegou ao Supremo Tribunal Federal. A reversão da regra “separados, mas iguais” da decisão Plessy vs. Ferguson que estava nos livros desde 1890, ajudou a preparar o terreno para a mais nova rodada de ativismo pelos direitos civis. O Local Histórico Nacional Brown vs. Board of Education foi estabelecido em outubro de 1992, na agora famosa Monroe Elementary School.

Pioneiros psiquiátricos

Durante o século 20, Topeka se manteve como líder mundial em pesquisa e tratamento psiquiátrico. De 1919 a 2003, a famosa Clínica Menninger em Topeka tratou pacientes com doenças mentais graves. Compreendendo a primeira prática de psiquiatria de grupo, os fundadores drs. C.F., Karl e Will Menninger acreditavam que a doença mental podia ser tratada, em uma época em que se pensava que a custódia ou o exílio vitalício eram os únicos cursos de ação. Os métodos Menninger foram tão bem-sucedidos que terapeutas de todo o mundo adotaram e praticaram suas inovações e abordagens.

Figuras notáveis ​​na história de Topeka

Figuras importantes e notáveis ​​na história que chamaram de casa Topeka incluem o coronel John Ritchie, Charles Curtis e Alfred M. Landon.

A casa mais antiga de Topeka pertencia ao coronel abolicionista John Ritchie, que a usou durante as lutas para estabelecer o estado livre do Kansas durante a década de 1850. Ritchie foi fundamental na elaboração de uma constituição antiescravista que finalmente foi aprovada pelo eleitorado em 1859. A casa de Ritchie serviu como um ponto de encontro para essa facção, uma parada na Ferrovia Subterrânea e um local de boas-vindas para sufragistas mulheres como Elizabeth Cady Stanton e Susan B. Anthony.

Servindo como o 31º vice-presidente dos Estados Unidos, Charles Curtis era um nativo americano e a primeira pessoa de ascendência não europeia a alcançar um dos dois cargos mais altos do país. Servindo no governo do presidente Herbert Hoover, Curtis também foi o último indivíduo com barba (bigode) a ocupar um desses cargos. Sua mãe era membro da tribo Kaw (ou Kanza), da qual o nome Kansas foi derivado. Os Kaw são intimamente relacionados à nação Osage. O republicano Alf Landon concorreu sem sucesso contra Franklin D. Roosevelt na eleição presidencial de 1936. Depois de perder a eleição, Landon voltou a Topeka para construir sua própria casa branca, onde viveu o resto de seus anos. Conhecido como um “progressista prático” dentro do Partido Republicano, Landon permaneceu ativo na política e, em seu 100º aniversário, foi visitado em sua casa em Topeka pelo presidente Ronald Reagan.Instituições de ensino superior

Muito foi documentado sobre a história das instituições de ensino superior em Topeka. Entre essas instituições estão um braço de pesquisa da University of Kansas, fundada em Lawrence, em 1864; Washburn University; e o Colégio das Irmãs de Betânia. Estabelecido pela Igreja Episcopal em 1860, o College of the Sisters of Bethany foi anunciado como a “Wellesley do Oeste” para as mulheres americanas.

Originalmente chamada de Lincoln College, a Washburn University foi fundada em 1865 como um Congregational College. A faculdade foi renomeada Washburn College em 1868, para reconhecer o diácono da igreja Ichabod Washburn por sua doação de $ 25.000 à instituição. O terreno de 160 acres onde o atual campus está localizado foi doado pelo Coronel John Ritchie em 1874. A universidade foi reconstruída após o devastador tornado de Topeka em 1966.

Museus e outros pontos culturais de interesse

Os museus de Topeka são ricos em história ferroviária. Essas instituições incluem o Center for Historical Research e o Kansas Museum of History, ambos operados pela Kansas State Historical Society.

O Museu de História do Kansas contém uma locomotiva e vagões reais da Atchison, Topeka e Santa Fe Railroad de 1880, junto com um vagão coberto totalmente abastecido pronto para a trilha do Oregon. O centro de pesquisa contém mais de 50.000 pés de materiais impressos e arquivos do governo do Kansas, junto com 50.000 bobinas de microfilme e outros materiais de pesquisa.

A cidade também abriga o Topeka Performing Arts Center e o mais antigo teatro com jantar comunitário do país, o Topeka Civic Theatre. Fundado em 1936, o Theatre mudou-se para a reformada antiga Gage Elementary School, em 1999. A construção do Topeka Performing Arts Center foi iniciada com uma doação de US $ 7 milhões fornecida pela Agência Federal de Obras Públicas (PWA) em meados da década de 1930, e necessária três anos para ser concluído. O elevador de orquestra era um dos oito únicos elevadores desse tipo nos EUA na época.

EsporteEmbora nenhuma equipe esportiva profissional chame Topeka de lar, os esportes universitários são populares, assim como as equipes comunitárias. Os eventos esportivos são realizados no campo de beisebol Hummer Sports Park, Gage Park e no Kansas Expocentre, um auditório de 7.500 lugares que tem uma instalação de 22.400 pés quadrados para shows, circos e jogos de hóquei jogados pelos Topeka Tarantulas da Central Hockey League. Propriedade do Condado de Shawnee, o Kansas Expocentre também contém uma instalação chamada R.R. Domer Livestock Area, onde o campeonato anual de rodeio da Kansas State High School é realizado.



História de Topeka, Kansas - História

História de Topeka, Kansas
De: History of Shawnee County, Kansas
e cidadãos representativos.
Editado por James L. King, Topeka, Kansas
Editores de Richmond e Arnold
Chicago 1905

O início da cidade de Topeka
Os pais da cidade de Topeka foram Cyrus K. Holliday, Fry W. Giles, Daniel H. Home, Enoch Chase, Jacob B. Chase, George Davis, Milton C. Dickey, Charles Robinson e Loring J. Cleveland. Holliday era da Pensilvânia, Giles e Dickey de New Hampshire, Cleveland de Iowa e os outros de Massachusetts. Todos foram atraídos pela abertura de um novo país à colonização e pelas oportunidades assim apresentadas para os jovens se envolverem em negócios. No caso de alguns deles, pelo menos, havia o amor natural americano pela aventura e um desejo patriótico de ajudar a tornar o Kansas um Estado livre. A maioria deles veio por intermédio da New England Emigrant Aid Company, da qual Charles Robinson era o agente, com sede em Lawrence, Kansas. O Sr. Robinson chegou ao Kansas no início de julho de 1854 O Sr. Holliday em outubro de 1854 Enoch e Jacob B. Chase, George Davis, Fry W. Giles, Milton C. Dickey e Loring G. Cleveland em novembro de 1854 e Daniel H. Casa 2 de dezembro daquele ano.

Enoch Chase, Jacob B. Chase, George Davis e Milton C. Dickey precederam os demais para a localidade de Topeka, no final de novembro de 1854 (cerca de 29 de novembro), embora seja provável que Holliday e Robinson tenham visitado a localidade antes dessa data. O Sr. Holiday afirma ter estado no local no dia 22 de novembro, com um grupo de sete homens, e que a ideia de estabelecer uma cidade surgiu naquela época. O registro mostra que Fry W. Giles, Daniel H. Horne e Loring G. Cleveland deixaram St. Louis no outono de 1854 no vapor & quotLenora & quot, com destino a Kansas City. Acompanhando o trio estavam Thomas G. Thornton, Timothy McIntire, Jonas E. Greenwood, George F. Crowe, William C. Linaker e Samuel A. Clark. Esta festa caminhou de Kansas City a Lawrence, chegando lá na noite de sábado, 2 de dezembro de 1854. Uma reunião foi realizada naquela cidade na noite de domingo, 3 de dezembro, com a participação da festa de Giles e Robinson e Holliday, na qual a organização e localização da cidade de Topeka foram definitivamente determinados. A cidade foi devidamente estabelecida no dia 5 de dezembro de 1854.

Não há controvérsia quanto à data da fundação da cidade, mas houve tantas declarações conflitantes sobre as circunstâncias da fundação, a seleção do local e a precedência dos colonos originais, que é necessário fornecer aqui as lembranças pessoais de alguns dos fundadores, a fim de que a justiça completa seja feita a todos os envolvidos. Essas declarações são condensadas de livros, artigos de jornais e entrevistas pessoais e, embora possa haver alguma variação quanto às datas e circunstâncias incidentais, os fatos gerais estão em perfeito acordo.

No ano de 1854, Enoch Chase morava em Boston e dedicava-se ao seu ofício, o de estofador. Uma circular emitida pela New England Emigrant Aid Company caiu em suas mãos, relativa a assuntos no Kansas, e ele decidiu fazer uma investigação pessoal das condições no novo Território. Ele chegou à fronteira do Kansas em novembro de 1854. Com oito companheiros e uma carroça carregada de provisões puxada por uma parelha de bois, ele partiu para Lawrence, chegando lá em 24 de novembro. O grupo construiu uma casa de gramado para sua própria acomodação, e morou nela cerca de cinco dias, ao final dos quais Enoch Chase, Jacob B. Chase, Milton C. Dickey e George Davis compraram a participação de seus associados na carga de e decidiram tentar a sorte em um ponto mais a oeste no rio Kansas, onde se pensava que uma nova cidade poderia ser localizada. Ao chegarem ao ponto em vista, segundo o depoimento do Sr. Chase, selecionaram o trecho de terreno (trecho 31), sobre o qual posteriormente se localizou o povoado. Cada homem ocupou um quarto do trecho e uma casa de toras foi construída perto do rio, em um ponto agora conhecido como canto noroeste das avenidas Kansas e First. Enquanto a casa estava sendo construída, o Sr. Dickey voltou a Lawrence para buscar suprimentos e voltou alguns dias depois, trazendo com ele as outras partes que se interessaram pela nova cidade. O Sr. Chase e seus três associados cederam sua seção de terra para propósitos da cidade e tomaram um quarto da seção de cada uma das terras adjacentes. O bairro do Sr. Chase ficava perto do atual local do Washburn College. A seção que esses quatro homens renderam tornou-se propriedade da Associação da Cidade de Topeka. O Sr. Chase construiu uma casa em seu bairro, que ocupou com sua família em março de 1855. Em outubro de 1857, mudou-se para a cidade e mais tarde dirigiu uma pensão. Ele construiu uma grande casa de madeira na Sixth avenue, que era usada como um hotel, e em 1857 ele abriu a Chase House, depois convertida no Capitol Hotel, e mais tarde em uma parte do edifício de escritórios Stormont. Ele também construiu e residiu na casa de pedra na esquina noroeste da Sexta Avenida, agora usada como prédio de lojas.

Daniel H. Horne, curtidor e peleteiro de profissão, deixou Massachusetts em novembro de 1854 e chegou ao Kansas em 2 de dezembro daquele ano, parando em Lawrence. Ele participou da reunião de 13 homens em Lawrence na noite de 3 de dezembro, na qual o empreendimento Topeka foi sugerido. O Sr. Home diz que esses homens estavam agindo por conta própria e que Cyrus K. Holliday, Charles Robinson e Milton C. Dickey não foram incluídos entre os treze. Os três últimos senhores nomeados entraram na reunião depois de ela ter sido organizada. Robinson e Holliday, cujo negócio era direcionar os imigrantes do Kansas para locais de assentamento, falaram das possibilidades de uma nova cidade a 25 milhas a oeste de Lawrence, e o Sr. Dickey afirmou que a cidade proposta estava pronta para colonização, e que o necessário terras haviam sido obtidas por ele mesmo, George Davis e Enoch e Jacob B. Chase, os três últimos estando no solo. Um comitê consistindo de Daniel H. Home, Fry W. Giles, Loring G. Cleveland e Samuel A. Clark foi nomeado para inspecionar o local proposto. Esses quatro homens seguiram imediatamente para o ponto designado, chegando lá na noite de segunda-feira, 4 de dezembro, acompanhados por Holliday, Robinson e Dickey. Eles encontraram Enoch Chase, Jacob B. Chase e George Davis no chão, e trabalhando na cabana de toras acima referida por Enoch Chase. O grupo de homens dormiu na cabana naquela noite, ou parte da noite, pois ela foi parcialmente destruída pelo fogo antes do amanhecer. Robinson voltou para Lawrence na terça-feira, depois que um contrato de trabalho foi executado para organizar a cidade. Horne afirma que Charles Robinson estava agindo apenas como um guia para o partido, e que ele não assinou os artigos do acordo para a organização da cidade, mas o nome de Robinson aparece no instrumento, e o Sr. Horne está evidentemente errado. Nas negociações sobre o local, Enoch e JB Chase, Milton C. Dickey e George Davis tiveram a oportunidade de escolher áreas de 160 acres fora dos limites da cidade, por renunciar à seção sobre a qual a cidade seria construída, e eles também deveriam têm participações iguais na empresa da cidade. O comitê adotou uma resolução de que nenhuma outra distribuição de lotes ou reivindicações deveria ser feita até que os homens que haviam sido deixados em Lawrence chegassem. Depois de sua chegada, uma distribuição foi feita por loteria, Jonas E. Greenwood garantindo a primeira escolha e selecionando uma reivindicação a leste da cidade, onde as lojas Atchison, Topeka e Santa Fe agora estão localizadas. Greenwood imediatamente vendeu sua reivindicação para Thomas G. Thornton por $ 15. Daniel H. Horne obteve a segunda escolha, escolhendo uma reivindicação a oeste da cidade, onde residiu por muitos anos, e que posteriormente foi vendida para fins de lote na cidade. Do grupo que veio de Lawrence para se juntar ao comitê do Lar, os seguintes nomes são dados: Thomas G. Thornton, George F. Crowe e seu filho, Zenas, de 15 anos WC Linaker, Jonas E. Greenwood, Timothy McIntire e um homem chamado Williams - o último citado desapareceu após permanecer um curto período de tempo. Após a destruição da cabana Chase pelo fogo, Daniel H. Horne e Loring G. Cleveland começaram a construir uma cabana de grama, que foi ocupada como residência durante o inverno. A cabana Chase também foi reconstruída e manteve seu prestígio como a primeira construção na cidade.

Em seu livro, & quotThirty Years in Topeka & quot, publicado em 1886, Fry W. Giles corrobora tudo o que foi dito sobre a transação em 5 de dezembro. Ele observa a presença de nove homens cujos nomes são fornecidos acima e afirma que na manhã daquele dia esses homens caminharam sobre o local proposto até um ponto a meio caminho entre o rio Kansas e o riacho Shunganunga, e então voltaram para a cabana de Chase para concluir os detalhes da organização. Milton C. Dickey convocou a assembléia e fez com que o & quotthe sujeito de chapéu branco & quot (apontando para o Coronel Holliday) fosse convidado a presidir. Isso foi acertado e o Sr. Giles foi nomeado secretário. O Sr. Giles afirma ainda que Charles Robinson não permaneceu com a parte naquele dia nem teve qualquer interesse ativo no processo. A cabine Chase é assim descrita no livro Giles:

“Suas dimensões eram de cerca de 12 por 14 pés e cinco pés de altura nas laterais. As empenas estendiam-se cerca de um metro acima dos lados. Pólos sobre estes, sustentados, primeiro uma camada de arbustos e, em seguida, uma folha de pradaria
Relva. Na extremidade oeste, fora das toras, estava empilhado um pacote de pedras um tanto na forma da antiga lareira, sem argamassa, e se estendendo para cima logo acima do telhado, as toras da empena formando a parede interna do chaminé. Uma camada de terra foi lançada contra as toras no norte, e os interstícios entre as toras rachados com arbustos e gessados ​​com lama. A única abertura que restava para a luz ou entrada era para o sul, e uma tira de tecido de algodão pendurada ali para proteger do frio.

“Poucos dias depois de o pequeno grupo ter resolvido as necessidades do caso, e conseguido alguns suprimentos, tornou-se evidente que as chamas que rugiam pela chaminé ocasionalmente chegavam perigosamente próximas à palha do telhado. Quando eles se endireitaram uma noite sobre a camada de feno que cobria o chão de sua cabana e buscaram repouso, foi observado que a cabana estaria pegando fogo antes do amanhecer, mas com gracejos e indiferença o assunto foi descartado, e com o cansaço todos os olhos estavam logo fechado. Eles não haviam dormido muito, entretanto, quando um flash de luz trouxe todos os olhos abertos novamente, e eles olharam para uma massa de fogo envolvendo o mato e a palha, e palhas queimando caindo sobre o feno em que estavam deitados. Havia trabalho a ser feito, e rapidamente. Em um canto estavam armazenados farinha, farinha, feijão, café, chá, roupas, armas, um barril de melaço e um barril de pó. Removê-los era o importante trabalho a realizar, e foi uma sorte que os homens tivessem ido descansar sem tirar os chapéus e as botas. Um pegou o barril de pólvora e o jogou descendo o declive em direção ao rio, enquanto outros agarraram o que puderam e, em um piscar de olhos, tudo exceto algumas roupas e uma ou duas espingardas foram espalhadas com segurança na pradaria. A 'cidade' estava em ruínas, e as pessoas que ficavam ansiosas questionavam a melhor forma de se proteger do frio durante a noite. Eles tinham uma pequena tenda, que eles ergueram, e em vão tentativas de dormir no chão nu com sua lona sozinha sobre eles, uma parte sofrida durante a noite, enquanto outras protegiam dos ventos cortantes como podiam no matagal de escova por perto. & quot

Será observado que o Sr. Giles registra o incêndio como ocorrido vários dias após a chegada do grupo de Lawrence, enquanto Daniel H. Home diz que ocorreu na noite de sua chegada, 4 de dezembro. O coronel Holliday e outros concordam que foi na noite de 4 de dezembro, mas há boas razões para acreditar que o relato de Giles é o correto, neste caso.

CONTA DO CORONEL HOLLIDAY.

A história do Coronel Cyrus K. Holliday sobre a fundação de Topeka é melhor contada em suas próprias palavras:

& quotEm 21 de novembro de 1854, um grupo de oito pessoas deixou a cidade de Lawrence para uma viagem pelo rio Kansas até sua cabeceira, na confluência dos rios Smoky Hill e republicano. O partido consistia em Charles Robinson, Rev. S. Y. Lum, Rev. Clough, Franklin Billings, George Davis, W. T. A. H. Bolles, John Armstrong e C. K. Holliday. Durante a viagem, três pontos foram acordados como eminentemente adequados para os propósitos da cidade: primeiro, o local da atual cidade de Topeka, segundo, o de Manhattan, e terceiro, o de Junction City. Nosso grupo ficou em Tecumseh na noite de 21 de novembro, acampando, e partiu de Tecumseh às 9 horas da manhã de quarta-feira, 22 de novembro de 1854. Tendo cruzado o Shunganunga e emergido da floresta, perto do que mais tarde ficou conhecido como bosque de Kline , todo o nosso grupo estava em êxtase com a bela conformação do terreno que se estendia diante de nós, e sua completa adaptação à construção de uma cidade, no que se referia ao novo local.

“Imediatamente após o retorno de nosso grupo a Lawrence, em 27 ou 28 de novembro, o remanescente do quinto grupo sob os auspícios da New England Emigrant Aid Company chegou a Lawrence. Esses foram os poucos que tiveram a coragem de permanecer - a maior parte do grupo havia começado sua viagem de volta para casa sem nem mesmo entrar no Território. O remanescente que permaneceu consistia em Enoch Chase, Jacob B. Chase, Milton C. Dickey e George Davis. Esses senhores foram aconselhados por Charles Robinson e eu, e informados sobre nossa viagem rio acima, e foram avisados ​​e solicitados a nos ajudar a construir uma cidade no ponto selecionado, perto da balsa de Papan. Depois de uma compreensão completa de todo o assunto, eles consentiram em fazê-lo e foram totalmente instruídos precisamente para onde ir e o que afirma tomar e manter o mesmo por alguns dias até Charles Robinson e eu, e outras pessoas adequadas como poderíamos influenciar, poderíamos nos juntar a eles, quando a organização da cidade fosse aperfeiçoada.

& quot No dia seguinte, 29 de novembro de 1854 - o dia da nossa primeira eleição para delegado ao Congresso - esses quatro senhores seguiram exatamente como foram aconselhados e instruídos a fazer e tomaram posse das terras que havíamos indicado e no dia seguinte, 30 de novembro , 1854, eles começaram a construção da primeira casa em Topeka, na esquina sudoeste das avenidas Kansas e First, localmente conhecida como Mill Block. Poucos dias depois, 1º ou 2 de dezembro, o remanescente do sexto grupo sob os auspícios da New England Emigrant Aid Company chegou a Lawrence. O projeto de uma nova cidade perto da balsa de Papan também foi apresentado a eles, e recebeu favoravelmente, e na segunda-feira, dia 4 de dezembro de 1854, os seguintes membros desse partido, a saber: Fry W. Giles, Daniel H. Horne Loring G. Cleveland e Samuel A. Clark, em companhia de MC Dickey, que havia retornado a Lawrence, e Charles Robinson e eu, subimos de camelo de Lawrence para o novo local da cidade, e alojamos na nova cabana inacabada, com a festa que acontecera na quarta-feira anterior.

& quot No dia seguinte, terça-feira, 5 de dezembro de 1854, foi acordado o contrato de sociedade e devidamente assinado, foram indicados os limites do município, foram realizadas pesquisas e a fundação da nova cidade, que havia sido selecionada e localizada duas semanas antes, tornou-se um fato consumado. Os presentes e participantes da fundação da cidade, conforme seus nomes aparecem nos registros, foram M. C. Dickey, J. B. Chase, George Davis, C. K. Holliday, Fry W. Giles, D. H. Horne, L. G. Cleveland e S. A. Clark. Charles Robinson auxiliou habilmente na inauguração da nova cidade, mas recusou-se a atuar como membro próprio da companhia municipal, julgando imprudente fazê-lo, na medida em que representava os interesses da New England Emigrant Aid Company. Aproveitando a ausência, no entanto, foi prontamente votado como décimo membro da associação Topeka.

“Em nossa viagem de 21 de novembro, pegamos a estrada da Califórnia ou cordilheira de Lawrence e passamos para oeste pelas altas pradarias, com os vales do Kansas e Wakarusa à direita e à esquerda, contornados ao longe por franjas escuras de madeira. Por uma distância de seis ou oito milhas, havia numerosas cabanas de toras espalhadas ao longo da estrada, mas dali para as poucas cabanas em Tecumseh, o país era quase um deserto. Em Tecumseh, provavelmente havia uma dúzia de cabanas de toras. Saindo dali, seguimos o rio por uma distância de cinco milhas e chegamos à bela elevação do terreno onde Topeka deveria estar localizada, embora o nome ainda não tivesse sido determinado. Tínhamos outros locais em vista, como já afirmei, em Manhattan e Junction City, mas para os propósitos de uma pequena colônia de habitantes da Nova Inglaterra que seria mantida pela primeira vez, Topeka era de longe o melhor local. Ficava a 40 quilômetros a oeste de Lawrence, o rio Kansas ficava ao norte com seus ricos fundos e a reserva indígena Pottawatomie se estendia por 30 milhas a oeste. O local em si era lindo e possuía muitos dos requisitos para a construção de uma cidade, pedra, areia e madeira em abundância. Além disso, a Balsa de Papan já era uma instituição bem conhecida, onde as duas grandes trilhas do continente cruzavam o rio Kansas - uma de Fort Leavenworth e St. Joseph para Santa Fé e postos militares do interior, e outra de Independence e Westport, Missouri , para a Califórnia e a costa do Pacífico. & quot

Em outra parte de seu relato, o coronel Holliday fala da cabana de Chase como sendo construída com troncos não cortados e coberta com grama de pradaria, com dimensões de 3,6 x 3,5 m, com uma porta tão baixa que. as pessoas que entravam ou saíam eram obrigadas a se curvar. Falando da ocupação da cabana pelos homens na noite de 4 de dezembro, o Coronel Holliday diz: & quotNeste rude mas todo o grupo dormiu a noite toda, mas infelizmente a grama seca entre as toras pegou fogo, e boa parte do a primeira casa foi destruída. As duas ou três cabanas seguintes foram construídas inteiramente de grama, nas quais os primeiros colonos de Topeka passaram seu primeiro inverno, que felizmente para eles foi de um caráter extremamente ameno e agradável, talvez uniformemente mais do que qualquer inverno que o sucedeu. Depois das casas de grama, o estilo mais popular de cortiço foi chamado de 'shake'. Esses 'shakes' eram toras de carvalho serradas em comprimentos de cerca de um metro e meio, rachadas de maneira semelhante a telhas e feitas para se parecerem com pranchas de madeira. & Quot


Museu de História do Kansas, Topeka

O Museu de História do Kansas é uma das 8 Maravilhas do Kansas porque conta a história colorida do estado com pessoas primitivas, trilhas, povoados, o Kansas sangrento e a Guerra Civil, trens e cidades, início do século 20 e o passado recente.


A locomotiva a vapor Cyrus K. Holliday de 1880 é a peça central das exposições do museu. A Sociedade Histórica restaurou a locomotiva Atchison, Topeka & amp Santa Fe Railway à sua aparência no dia em 1880, quando ela deixou as lojas Baldwin pela primeira vez. Hoje é mais uma vez conhecido como No. 132. Os dois ônibus foram restaurados ao seu uso único como carro de tropeiro dos anos 1920 e carro do superintendente de divisão dos anos 1910. Em fevereiro de 1983, o trem foi rebocado em plataforma plana para o local do museu e movido no local enquanto o prédio ainda estava em construção.

Um típico Cheyenne Tipi do Sul e um chalé de grama Wichita acompanham as exposições sobre os nativos que viviam nas planícies. As exibições também ilustram o período de tempo em que as tribos de imigrantes foram transferidas para a área para viver nas reservas designadas.

A carroça e o búfalo do imigrante estão no centro da seção de trilhas, que apresenta a Exploração Lewis e Clark e as trilhas de Santa Fé e Oregon-Califórnia. A coleção de bandeiras da Guerra Civil do museu, incluindo uma de Quantrill 's Raid, e um obus são apresentadas na seção Bleeding Kansas e da Guerra Civil, que destaca as histórias de John Brown, a Primeira Infantaria Colorida do Kansas e a Guerra Civil no Oeste.

Outros tesouros do museu são o moinho de vento Queen, a diligência, a cabana de toras, o biplano Longren de 1914 e a impressora na qual William Allen White imprimiu seu editorial, "Qual é o problema com o Kansas?"

O museu está localizado na sede da Sociedade Histórica do Kansas em Topeka, em 81 acres na extremidade noroeste da cidade. Aqui, os visitantes do museu podem fazer compras na Loja do Museu, explorar a galeria prática, o Discovery Place, realizar pesquisas sobre o Kansas e a história da família nos Arquivos e Biblioteca do Estado, fazer piqueniques no local e caminhar pela trilha natural de 2,5 milhas. A Sociedade Histórica foi estabelecida em 1875 pela Associação de Editores e Editores do Kansas para salvar registros do presente e do passado. Em 1879, a Sociedade Histórica foi designada como "a fiduciária do estado" para manter sua história e antiguidades.

Localização: Saída 356 na I-70 em West Topeka. Vire para o norte, entre na rotatória e siga as placas em direção ao oeste.

Horário de funcionamento e ingresso: terça a sábado, das 9h às 17h Domingo das 13h às 17h Adultos $ 6 alunos $ 4 KSHS, Inc., sócios e crianças de cinco anos ou menos admitidos gratuitamente.

Fotos cortesia da Sociedade Histórica de Kansas.

A Kansas Sampler Foundation é uma organização pública sem fins lucrativos 501 (C) (3). Nossa missão é preservar e sustentar a cultura rural, educando Kansans sobre o Kansas e fazendo networking e apoiando as comunidades rurais. O objetivo é manter todas as cidades viáveis ​​que mostrem vontade e ânimo para se ajudar.


Kansas

Kansas, situated on the American Great Plains, became the 34th state on January 29, 1861. Its path to statehood was long and bloody: After the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 opened the two territories to settlement and allowed the new settlers to determine whether the states would be admitted to the union as 𠇏ree” or”slave,” North and South competed to send the most settlers into the region. This quickly led to violence,and the territory became known as 𠇋leeding Kansas.” Kansas has long been known as part of America’s agricultural heartland, and is home to the major U.S. military installation Fort Leavenworth. In 1954, it became a battleground of the civil rights movement when the landmark Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka case was decided in the Supreme Court, ending the doctrine of “separate but equal” in public schools. Kansas is also known for its contributions to jazz music, barbecue and as the setting of L. Frank Baum’s classic children’s book The Wizard of Oz.

Date of Statehood: January 29, 1861

Capital: Topeka

População: 2,853,118 (2010)

Tamanho: 82,278 square miles

Nickname(s): Sunflower State Wheat State Jayhawk State

Lema: Ad astra per aspera (“To the stars through difficulties”)


The Topeka Room, located on the second floor, houses the library’s local history collection. Books, pamphlets, clippings, and other written sources tell the story of Topeka’s unique history. To complement these, there are photographs, prints, posters, scrapbooks, and audio-visual materials which help bring this history to life.


    A great resource to get more information about properties in Topeka and Shawnee County. Click on real estate property search and enter the address.
    Mortgage and deed records from 1988 to present are available on Public Access Computers located in our office during office hours (8 a.m. – 4:30 p.m.).
    The Sherwood Smith blueprint and document collection contains approximately 500 items that represent the growth of Topeka from the late 19th century to the middle of the 20th.
    The Planning Department works to preserve Topeka’s history, and strengthen its recognition and value within a wide variety of applications.
    Learn about the history, growth and development of American cities, towns and neighborhoods through digitized, Sanborn Fire Insurance Maps, 1867-1970.
    The Kansas Historic Resources Inventory (KHRI) is administered by the State Historic Preservation Office (SHPO) at the Kansas Historical Society (KSHS) and is a searchable inventory of the state’s surveyed historic properties.
    The corresponding microfilm is available in the Topeka Room.
    Search the Topeka city directories online.
    1860-1918: Database that includes Topeka and Shawnee land ownership maps that portrays land purchased, granted, or inherited with the property owners name. (available in library only)

Three Days:

Got three days? Add these great places to your list:

Charles Curtis House Museum
1101 SW Topeka Blvd. 785.357.1371
Tours: Saturdays 11 a.m. to 3 p.m. and by appointment.
Admission is charged

Tour the former home of Charles Curtis, the only Vice President of Native American descent. Marvel in the intricate decor and memorabilia from Curtis&apos political career.

Combat Air Museum
7016 SE Forbes Ave. 785.862.3303
Hours: March to December 9 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. Monday - Saturday
Admission is charged

See more than 30 military aircraft, from WWI to the present day, in addition to aircraft engines, artifacts and dioramas. Don’t miss the flight simulator!

Great Overland Station
701 N. Kansas Ave. 785.232.5533
Hours: Tuesday-Saturday 10 a.m. to 4 p.m., Sunday 1-4 p.m.
Admission is charged

Formerly home to the Union Pacific Railroad Station, this museum brings Topeka&aposs railroad heritage to life through guided tours, photographs, special exhibits and events. The annual Railroad Festival is held in July.

Holley Museum of Military History
420 SE 6th 785.272.6204
Hours: 10 a.m. to 8 p.m. Diário.
No admission is charged

Located inside the Ramada Convention Center Downtown, witness a 4,000-piece military collection of dioramas, models and artifacts from the Civil War through the Persian Gulf War.

Kansas Museum of History
6425 SW 6th 785.272.8681
Hours: Tuesday-Saturday 9 a.m. to 5 p.m., Sunday 1-5 p.m.
Admission is charged

Learn about colorful characters and everyday folks from Kansas&apos past. See a full-sized Cheyenne tipi, covered wagon, 1950s diner and an 1880s locomotive.

Museum of the Kansas National Guard
6700 SW Topeka Blvd. 785.862.1020
Hours: Tuesday-Saturday 10 a.m. to 4 p.m.
No admission is charged

Don&apost miss artifacts, equipment and materials from the history of the Kansas National Guard and 35th Division. Includes 30 outdoor exhibits, more than 100 indoor exhibits, a research library and photo archive.

Topeka Cemetery
1601 E. 10th Ave. 785.233.4132
Office Hours: Monday-Friday 8 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. Saturday mornings by appointment.
No admission is charged

Topeka Cemetery is the final resting place of many notable Topekans, including founder Cyrus K. Holliday, Col. John Ritchie and others. There are several monuments and memorials at the cemetery commemorating local historical events.

Topeka and Shawnee County Public Library Topeka Room
1515 SW 10th Ave. 785.580.4400
Hours: Monday-Friday 9 a.m. to 9 p.m. Saturday 9 a.m. to 6 p.m. Sunday noon to 9 p.m.
No admission is charged

If genealogy research has brought you to Topeka, you can’t miss the Topeka Room at the public library. There are more than 170,000 obituaries indexed from Topeka newspapers, 1906 to the present, maps and much more.

Washburn University and Mabee Library
1700 SW College Ave. 785.670.1010
Hours: Varied depending on if school is in session. Check the Mabee website.
No admission is charged

Washburn was founded as Lincoln College in 1865. From inception, students of all races and genders were admitted and studied together. In its earliest days, Union veterans were allowed to study at no charge. Today’s campus is 120 acres donated by Col. John Ritchie.


History of the Kansas Guard

The forerunner of the Kansas National Guard was created in 1855 when the area constituting Kansas was nothing more than a territory.

The Kansas Militia was authorized to provide organization, discipline and governance for a region that became the 34th state in 1861. The Kansas Constitution contained a provision designating the governor as commander in chief and assigning an adjutant general, appointed by the governor, with primary oversight of citizen soldiers committed to defending the state and nation.

Maj. Gen. Lee Tafanelli, the adjutant general of Kansas since January 2011, has responsibility for the modern incarnation of the minuteman model. The adjutant general&rsquos operational scope includes the Kansas Army and Air National Guard, Kansas Division of Emergency Management, Kansas Homeland Security and to provide administrative support to the Kansas Wing of the Civil Air Patrol.

The mission of Tafanelli and about 7,500 full-time and part-time personnel is to "protect life and property, provide a ready military capability for our state and nation, and be a valued part of our communities." These military members respond to natural disasters in Kansas &mdash tornadoes, floods, snowstorms and fires &mdash while also deploying in times of military conflict or humanitarian need.

The Kansas Guard participated in the Civil War, Indian Wars, Spanish-American War, World War I, World War II, Korean War, Berlin Crisis, Vietnam War, Operations Desert Shield/Desert Storm, Operation Restore Hope in Somalia, Operations Joint Endeavor, Deny Flight and Joint Guardian in Bosnia-Herzegovina, Operation Allied Force in Kosovo, Global War on Terrorism, Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation New Dawn.

Donald Ballard, who served as a colonel in the Kansas Army National Guard, was the most recent participant in the Kansas Guard to receive the Congressional Medal of Honor. He was a Navy corpsman assigned to the Marines in Vietnam. During an ambush in 1968, he threw his body on a grenade to protect the wounded. It didn&rsquot immediately explode, so he threw it out of harm&rsquos way.

"It was the right time to be in the wrong place," said Ballard, who received the Medal of Honor from President Richard Nixon.

The Kansas Guard organization, a joint federal-state initiative, comprises the Kansas Army Guard and Kansas Air Guard. Military equipment is furnished by the U.S. Department of Defense. Federal control is exercised over military strength and mobilization of Kansas Guard personnel and assets.

The Kansas Army Guard is made up of the Joint Forces Headquarters, Topeka 35th Infantry Division, Fort Leavenworth 130th Field Artillery Brigade, Manhattan 69th Troop Command, Topeka 287th Sustainment Brigade, Wichita 635th Regional Support Group, Topeka and 235th Regiment, Salina and subordinate units.

The Kansas Air Guard, established in 1947, is organized into the 184th Intelligence Wing, based at McConnell Air Force Base, Wichita, and the 190th Air Refueling Wing, which is located at Forbes Field in Topeka.

In the state Division of Emergency Management, the adjutant general leads an organization providing training, planning and response coordination of natural and man-made disasters. It was started in 1941 as the State Council of Defense.

The Homeland Security division coordinates statewide activities related to prevention of terrorism and became an element of the adjutant general&rsquos office after the terrorist attacks on the United States on Sept. 11, 2001.


The Roots of Azusa: Pentecost in Topeka

With the 100th anniversary of the Azusa Street Revival, we should also remember the anniversary of the day when the church once again discovered the baptism in the Holy Spirit -- New Year's Day, 1901.

In October 1900 in Topeka, Kansas, a small band of believers led by Charles Parham started Bethel Bible School. The school "invited all ministers and Christians who were willing to forsake all, sell what they had, give it away, and enter the school for study and prayer, where all of us together might trust God for food, fuel, rent and clothing." No one paid tuition or board and they all wanted to be equipped to go to the ends of the earth to preach the gospel of the Kingdom as a witness to every nation. The only textbook was the Bible. Their concerted purpose was to learn the Bible not just in their heads but to have each thing in the Scriptures wrought out in their hearts.

As they searched the scriptures, they came up with one great problem - what about the second chapter of Acts? In December 1900, Parham sent his students at work to diligently search the scriptures for the Biblical evidence of the baptism in the Holy Spirit. They all came back with the same answer - when the baptism in the Holy Spirit came to the early disciples, the indisputable proof on each occasion was that they spoke with other tongues.

Armed with this head knowledge, they now sought to have it worked out in their own hearts. Parham called a watch night service on December 31, 1900. He assembled about 75 people including the 40 students. One of the students, Agnes N. Ozman asked that hands might be laid upon her to receive the Holy Spirit since she desired to go to foreign lands as a missionary. According to Parham, after midnight on January 1, 1901, he laid hands upon her and:

"I had scarcely repeated three dozen sentences when a glory fell upon her, a halo seemed to surround her head and face, and she began speaking in the Chinese language, and was unable to speak English for three days. When she tried to write in English to tell us of her experience she wrote the Chinese, copies of which we still have in newspapers printed at that time."

They continued the prayer meeting for two more nights and three days. According to Parham, "We all got past any begging or pleading we knew the blessing was ours." O resto, como dizem, é história.

Within 10 years, that tiny prayer meeting in Topeka spread out far and wide to start the Azusa Street revival under William J. Seymour and the healing ministries of John G. Lake and F. F. Bosworth. That meeting ultimately gave birth as well to the Assemblies of God, the Church of God, the Church of God in Christ, and the Pentecostal Assemblies of the World. Thousands of missionaries went out and Pentecostal churches sprung up in Canada, Germany, Sweden, Norway, England, Scotland, France, Holland, Denmark, Mexico, Brazil, El Salvador, Venezuela, Chile, Liberia, Nigeria, the Congo, Ivory Coast, South Africa, Egypt, India, Sri Lanka, the Philippines, Fiji, New Zealand, Australia, and even China. When Miss Nettie Moomau, a missionary to China, heard about the Azusa Street revival, she left China to go to visit Azusa in October of 1906. She was filled with the Holy Spirit and returned to China to start a great healing ministry. She eventually planted churches in Lo Pau, Shanghai, Michow, Toachow, Canton, Yunnan, Siimao, Kansu, Yunnanfu, and Beijing.

All of this was accomplished in 10 years without any formal organization and in spite of the obvious limitations on communication and travel at the turn of the century. These people seemed to have no hesitation to leave everything behind to spread the message that God wanted to pour out His Spirit on all flesh - all nations - Jews and Greeks, slaves and free, male and female, rich and poor - everyone can come and be filled.

Perhaps at the dawn of a new century, and a new millennium, all Christians could use a new Pentecost, where we get past all begging and pleading and know that the blessing is ours to take to the nations.


The Segregation of Topeka's Public School System, 1879-1951

6th grade, Grant School, early 1900's.

Courtesy of the Kansas State Historical Society

by Thom Rosenblum, National Park Service Historian [1]

As the First World War entered its final year, a bill to extend the authority to an ever widening circle of communities throughout the State of Kansas to segregate their public schools snaked its way through the State Legislature. Seeking to expand upon an 1879 law permitting school boards in cities of the first class with populations of over 15,000 to create a dual elementary school system, the state lawmakers were now considering granting the same discretionary powers to towns with populations as few as 2,000.

With school segregation threatening to spill out of its legally defined space, local chapters of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People and others arrayed themselves against the proposed law. Nathaniel Sawyer, a Topeka teacher and member of the local branch of the NAACP, laid out the case of the African American community before Governor Henry Allen. Presaging the argument that lay at the heart of Brown v. Board of Education more than thirty years later, Sawyer noted “separation and segregation tends to lower the segregated class both in its own estimation and that of its fellows” and inevitably “the American colored man is robbed of his self respect by a treatment in schools and public places which accentuates complexion differences and masses all into a single body without regard to personal worth or character.” [2] The bill, a forthright expression of racist dogma, ultimately failed.

Segregation was not a peculiarly southern institution and the position of Topeka’s African American parents and children was particularly ambiguous. Although state law forbid segregation based on race in most aspects of public life, African American parents desiring their children receive a sound education depended on something often undependable – the benevolence of the white community.

4th grade, Lowman Hill School, 1892.

Courtesy of the Kenneth Spencer Research Library, Kansas Collection, University of Kansas

Such benevolence was scarce in the late
nineteenth and early twentieth century. In 1879, the Topeka Colored Citizen found the black Monroe Street School so mismanaged “that many children are in it are just where they were 2-3 years ago” expressing the opinion that the children were purposely held back so as to forestall their entering the city’s integrated junior high schools. More than a decade later, the Times-Observer advised its black readers not to rely on the public schools to educate their children but to “purchase books your children need” and that “those above the third grade should study at home.” [3]

Such conditions gave rise to the first court case in Topeka challenging the constitutionality of the state’s segregation law. William Reynolds, a black resident of Topeka, sought admission of his son to the newly constructed Lowman Hill School replacing an earlier structure destroyed by fire. Reynolds presented his son at the door of the modern two-story brick building only to be turned away. His son and the other black children living in the district were ordered to attend an old two-room wooden structure moved to a site of the former school which was described as a “veritable cesspool”. [4] Reynolds’ suit charged that the separation of children by race in the classroom violated the provision in the state constitution requiring the establishment of a uniform system of schools and that the segregation law violated the rights of children under the Fourteenth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution.

The state’s highest court disposed of Reynolds’ claims finding that “the system of educational opportunities, advantages, methods and accommodations” in the city schools “was uniform, constant and equal” whether attended “by blacks and whites commingling, or by them, separately.” The court also dismissed the section of the complaint alleging the violation of constitutional rights, noting that segregation did not necessarily imply the inferiority of either race to the other and that the intent of the Fourteenth Amendment was not to “abolish distinctions based upon color” or force “a commingling of the races upon terms unsatisfactory to either.” [5]

Artist rendering of the new Buchanan School.

Topeka Plaindealer, September 3, 1920

The school board’s actions in the Lowman Hill district at the turn of the century set the tone for a general policy of the gradual separation of the races in the city’s classrooms. Even as the Reynolds case held segregation to be a valid exercise of the legislative power, the creation of a dual public school system did not take place with the bold flick of a pen but rather occurred gradually over a period of years. When protests over the presence of black children in white schools did occur, the school board refused to act. In 1908, when white 7 th and 8 th grade students at Lincoln and Garfield schools staged a walkout “declaring they will never enter the doors of the school again until the Negro children are ousted,” the board refused to remove the thirty black children and simply waited out the strikers who returned to their classrooms quietly in a couple of days. [6]

Rather than assign Topeka’s African American students to schools based solely on race, the school board adopted other means of segregating their school system such as choosing to wait until a school was closed and a new one erected or refusing the children of recently arrived black parents entrance to a school designated as white while leaving those already in attendance unmolested. Entre Reynolds case and 1928, only one integrated school, Potwin, was forcefully segregated. [7]

Certainly the school board’s cautious approach resulted partly from the fact that many of the city school districts lacked a population mix resulting in predominantly white or black school populations. Yet another reason the board trod carefully was that they had come to fully embrace the separate-but-equal doctrine established in the 1896 U.S. Supreme Court case Plessy v. Ferguson.

Throughout the first two decades of the twentieth century, the Topeka Board of Education struggled to create a system which would meet the needs of African American students. New buildings equipped with plumbing, restrooms and electric lights were raised in the city’s African-American school districts. Existing classrooms were refitted with new equipment or additional rooms added and playgrounds authorized. Kindergartens and specialized rooms for the teaching of domestic science were approved. Nurses were assigned to serve African American students and more black teachers were hired while additional ones were added to the list of available teachers. [8]

Old Gage School, late 1800's.

Courtesy of the Kansas State Historical Society

The school board, however, found it extremely difficult to keep up with a total student population which rose from 6,216 to 13,811 in the years between 1908 and 1924. [9] Under the existing conditions, the school board found it impossible to create a dual school system that met the requirements set forth in the Plessy decisão. In 1924, when white parents demanded that the African American children at Gage Park School be removed “and sent to some other school,” the board refused giving as their reason “the colored schools are as badly overcrowded as the white schools” and the transfer of the students would place an undue burden on the black schools. [10]

As the situation reached near-crisis proportions at both integrated and segregated schools, officials found themselves forced to convert the integrated Gage School basement into a classroom but could find no space to teach domestic science. In the all-white Parkdale School teachers packed forty-six students into classrooms with only enough desks and equipment for forty. In the Monroe School, located in one of Topeka’s black communities, teachers equipped a rest room and an office with tablet arm chairs and blackboards for use as classrooms. The principals of all the city’s black schools complained that having to teach full-time left them little opportunity to know what was going on in other rooms. The rapid growth of the student population posed particular problems for African American educators who not only had to seat and supply the students but find a way to teach the recent migrants from the south who, often deprived of even a rudimentary education, needed special attention to bring their work up to an appropriate level. Frequent requests for the establishment of night schools from recent arrivals from Europe and Mexico desiring to learn to read and write English only added to the school board’s anxiety about their ability to keep the system afloat. [11]

Students entering Buchanan School.

The timely passage of an $850,000 bond gave the city not only the means to alleviate overcrowding and repair or replace deteriorating schools but to enforce segregation. Launching an ambitious building program, the board created a system of four black and 18 white elementary schools. Upon viewing the sparkling new and remodeled edifices, the Kansas City Times lauded the schools as being “not only scientifically correct and modern, but things of beauty, and architectural parts of the neighborhoods in which they stand.” [12] In late summer 1948 when Isabel Lurie from the local branch of the NAACP appeared in the national organization’s New York offices to inform them Topeka was prepared to test the constitutionality of the state’s permissive school segregation law she pointed out that not only were the schools in that city “physically substantially equal” but in some cases “the Negro schools are even better than the white schools.” [13] Now the proud overseers of a modern school system, the board of education determined that the 1928 to 1929 school year would be the last in which black and white children would mingle together in the same classroom. [14]

The board, however, continued to move cautiously. Aware of the outrage members of the black community felt when, as one critic railed in 1915 when the Madison School was closed down and the children sent to Buchanan School to have their children “carted over the town like a cage of monkeys” when “no white people would stand for a moment to have their children carried past many schools in order to get to a certain school,” school authorities initially adopted a policy of voluntary transfers. As segregation progressed, the board noted with pleasure that the transfer of blacks students from one district to another was going smoothly. [15]

Any sense of relief however, proved short-lived. As principals turned black students away, a flurry of lawsuits erupted with at least three being filed in 1928 and 1929. With the support of the Topeka Chapter of the NAACP, attorneys representing residents Maud Rich, George Wright and Howard Foster took segregation head-on, charging the city’s elementary schools denied black children the rights guaranteed them under the equal distance creating undue hardships and was therefore unreasonable. Of the three cases, Wright e adotivo made it into court, the other being dropped before it reached district court.

Article from Topeka's African American newspaper.

Topeka Plaindealer, February 8, 1929

No Wright case, the district court denied an injunction to prevent the board of education from transferring African American students “from a school maintained for white children to one maintained for colored children.” The same court dismissed Foster’s Fourteenth Amendment case hearing only his second action that the school board’s use of public monies to transport students from one school to another was illegal. The court ruled in favor of the defendant. Lawyers appealed both cases to the Kansas Supreme Court which decided in favor of the school board noting that the Topeka Board of Education’s segregated school system was in accordance with the law and that the board was vested with the legal right to transport students from one district to the other. [16]

The school segregation issue remained dormant in Topeka for more than a decade. In 1941, the relative calm was shattered with the Graham caso. Under the existing system, the board of education assigned white students to the junior high schools for grades seven, eight and nine while black students did not graduate to one of the city’s integrated junior high schools until grade nine. [17] In 1941, Ulysses Graham challenged this pattern of school attendance as violating his son’s constitutional rights as guaranteed by the Fourteenth Amendment and the Bill of Rights of the Constitution of the State of Kansas. As in the earlier cases, Graham made no claims that the elementary school teachers were incompetent or the school “not a well-conducted grade school.” [18]

Civil rights attorney Elisha Scott.

Courtesy of the Kenneth Spencer Research Library, Kansas Collection, University of Kansas

The Kansas Supreme Court found that, due to the different systems of teaching and differences in the courses and facilities found in the junior high and elementary schools, the prevailing system of placement violated the African American children’s rights to equal treatment. Delivering the opinion of the court Justice Allen clearly stated “it will not do to say to one American citizen, you may not have the benefits of an improved method of education because of your race.” [19] The court, however, while ordering the Graham child be admitted to the junior high school refused to resolve the issue of full school desegregation of the 7th and 8th grades.

The Graham case proved a watershed in the Topeka civil rights movement rupturing the tissue of African American society. At the core of the struggle in conscience was the resolution that school desegregation remained a necessity for Topeka’s children balanced against the fear that full consolidation of the junior high schools would hurt African American children and cost black teachers their jobs.

Throughout the case the veteran civil rights attorney Elisha Scott struggled to accommodate his disdain for Jim Crowism with an ardent concern for the welfare of the teachers who he feared would be displaced with the closing of segregated schools. In 1937, smarting under accusations of incompetence leveled by a black-owned newspaper, Topeka Plaindealer, the maligned teachers turned to Scott who appeared before the Board of Education demanding “the Board should take action exonerating these teachers from the charges made.” [20] Four years later, many of the city’s black teachers again turned to Scott. In an effort to stave off wholesale integration and save their jobs, African American teachers, as one critic charged, “packed” the still un-chartered 1941 Topeka NAACP elections to hold the incumbent president Scott “selfishly at the head of the branch for their own particular purposes.” [21]

Attorney Raymond Reynolds.

Courtesy of the Topeka NAACP

Blessed with a flair for the dramatic and capable of bringing spectators in a court of law to tears, Scott rose before the board on June 23, 1941 and argued that the time was not yet ripe for full integration. The contingent of twenty-five educators and parents including the recently retired principal of the all-black Washington School Ezekiel Ridley, declared that “at least 90 percent of the colored people in Topeka want their children to go to the colored schools” and requested the board continue to maintain grades seven and eight in the city’s four black schools. The children, the delegation made it known, would “get more out of the training by colored teachers and association of children of their own race.” In a statement eerily presaging that advanced by the school board’s defense of their segregated school system in the marrom case, parents expressed their fear that placing black children in predominantly white schools “would give the colored students an inferiority complex” resulting in many dropping out of school “which might lead them into trouble of various kinds.” Rather than forcing integration down the children’s throats, Scott pleaded for the retention of grades seven and eight in the black elementary schools but recommended that parents be granted discretionary powers to send their children to the white junior highs if they so pleased. [22]

Others just as passionately dissented. Two days after Scott had pled his case before the board, former president of the Topeka NAACP and attorney Raymond Reynolds called a meeting in his office to form a committee to protest the position taken by Scott. Not foreseeing the day when the privileges, immunities and rights guaranteed every citizen were extended to African Americans, Reynolds was in no mood for compromise. The fiery Reynolds had assisted in the adotivo case, fought to keep the gates of the city’s parks open to all, struck down an attempt to restrict black’s access to housing and joined forces with Scott to banish the film O Nascimento de uma Nação from Kansas theatres. [23] Resolving to wage an “unrelenting fight in behalf of the children” the attorney and his committee condemned the plan offered by their opponents as being designed only to “save a few colored teachers their jobs at a sacrifice of the rights assured to the children under the court’s decision.” [24]

Topeka's African American teachers in 1949.

Courtesy of Dr. Owen M. Henson

After hearing the cases presented by both sides, the school board, afraid of violating the high court’s order, sided with Reynolds and desegregated all of the city’s junior high schools. Eight African American teachers were fired or forced to resign. o Graham case opened a wound not easily healed. In 1948, McKinley Burnett, heading a revitalized local chapter of the NAACP reproached the board for failing to fully desegregate the city’s public school system and dispatched a representative to New York to meet with the national organization to discuss pursuing a school desegregation case. At the same time, the Topeka Council of Parents and Teachers took a determined stand against “abolishing segregated schools if such a move meant abolishing our own teacher’s jobs.” Addressing the school board, the group, representing all four of the city’s black schools protested “we fail to see how children can be inspired to get an education if we continually do away with the jobs they can fill after securing their education,” advising the board that no support for integration would be forthcoming until some proof was provided “that our children would do as well and be as happy as they are now.” [25]

Even as the highest court in the land heard arguments in Brown v. Board of Education, Topeka, the core membership of the Topeka NAACP remained activists in an African American community still deeply troubled by the struggle to end the separation of children by race in the city’s classrooms. Topeka’s black teachers refused to lend their support. “We have a situation here in Topeka,” NAACP branch secretary and plaintiff in the marrom case Lucinda Todd notified the national organization “in which the Negro Teachers are violently opposed to our efforts to integrate the public schools.” Without the support of the teachers, the NAACP could not rally the city’s ministers, the local branch complaining that many of the African-American religious leaders remained aloof and “if it were not for our school case” would “help us more at present.” [26]

Despite the lack of popular support, a small group of Topeka attorneys began fashioning a scaffold out of court papers. On June 25, 1951, in a federal courtroom in Topeka, Charles Bledsoe and Elisha Scott’s sons Charles and John with lawyers Robert Carter and Jack Greenberg of the NAACP’s Legal Defense Fund arrived ready to strike down segregation in Topeka’s public elementary schools. The case was but one doggedly filed in federal district courts between November 1950 and July 1951 which would be litigated concurrently before the U.S. Supreme Court in 1952. The Topeka Board of Education, however, decided not to wait for the U.S. Supreme Court’s decision. In September 1953, Charles Scott wrote Carter that the Superintendent of Topeka Schools had filed a recommendation for the gradual integration of all of the city’s schools.

[1] Brown v. Board of Education National Historic Site and the National Park Service gratefully acknowledge the assistance of Unified School District 501, Topeka, Kansas, the Kansas State Historical Society, and the Kenneth Spencer Research Library, the Kansas Collection, the University of Kansas in preparing this study.

[2] Nathaniel Sawyer to Governor Henry Allen, January 11, 1918, Governor Henry Allen Papers, Box 18, Kansas State Historical Society, Topeka, Kansas.

[3]Colored Citizen, September 20 and June 21, 1879 and Times-Observer, August 19, 1891 quoted in Thomas C. Cox, Blacks in Topeka Kansas, 1865-1915, Baton Rouge, LA: University of Louisiana Press, 1982, 112.

[4] William Reynolds v. The Board of Education of the City of Topeka, 66 Kan. 672 (1903).

[5]Reynolds v. The Board of Ed., 679-692.

[6] Topeka State Journal, September 24, 1908 and September 25, 1908 Topeka Plaindealer, September 24, 1908 Records of Minutes of the Board of Education, City of Topeka, October 5, 1908, Unified School District 501, Administration Building, Topeka, Kansas.

[7] In April 1921, the Topeka Board of Education ordered that the African American children at Potwin be sent to Buchanan school "to avoid some trouble that had occurred," Records of Minutes of the Board of Education, April 4, 1921.

[8] See as example Records of Minutes of the Board of Education, August 5, 1911 September 4, 1911 October 11, 1911 December 2, 1912 March 6, 1917 October 1, 1917 September 2, 1918 March 5, 1919 September 1, 1919 July 16, 1921 January 7, 1924 and August 7, 1924.

[9] Records of Minutes of the Board of Education, October 5, 1908 and September 8, 1924.

[10] Records of Minutes of the Board of Education, April 15, 1904.

[11] For information on school conditions see Records of Minutes of the Board of Education, February 5, 1923 November 5, 1923 March 3, 1924 July 9, 1924 and September 22, 1924.

[12]Kansas City Times, November 15, 1927.

[13] Franklin Williams to Thurgood Marshall, September 9, 1948 and Glouster Current to Dr. Porter Davis, September 15, 1948, Kansas State Conference Files, Papers of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Microfilm Division, Kansas State Historical Society.

[14] Records of Minutes of the Board of Education, January 11, 1929.

[15] Topeka Plaindealer, October 8, 1915 Records of Minutes of the Board of Education, City of Topeka, October 2, 1916 November 2, 1916 and January 7, 1929.

[16] For the Rich case see, Records of Minutes of the Board of Education, September 24, 1928 and October 1, 1928 and Topeka Plaindealer, September 28, 1928. For the Wright case see, Wright v. Board of Education, City of Topeka, 129 Kan. 852 (1930), Records of Minutes of the Board of Education, September 20, 1929 and September 27, 1929. For the adotivo case see, Foster v. Board of Education, City of Topeka, 289 Pac. 959 (1930) Records of Minutes of the Board of Education, January 7, 1929 February 4, 1929 and October 7, 1929 Topeka Daily Capital, October 13, 1929 Topeka Plaindealer, July 18, 1930 Assistant Secretary, NAACP to Galena French, Secretary, Topeka NAACP, October 31, 1929, Topeka Branch Office Files, Papers of the NAACP.

[17] The board of education established a 6-3-3 system or six years in elementary school, three years in junior high school and three years in high school for the city's white students. Black students were assigned to school under an 8-1-3 plan, attending elementary school through grade eight and then attending only grade nine in a junior high school before entering high school.

[18] Graham v. The Board of Education of the City of Topeka, 153 Kan. (1941) 843,

[19] Graham v. Board of Education, 846.

[20] Records of Minutes of the Board of Education, March 8, 1937 and July 11, 1941.

[21] In July 1939, the Topeka branch of the NAACP lost its charter when membership dropped below the minimum twenty-five required for membership in the national organization. Scott was the sitting president. Despite no longer being a member of the national organization, the local branch continued to hold elections, Raymond Reynolds to Roy Wilkins, September 2, 1941, Topeka Branch Office Files, NAACP Papers.

[22] On July 11, Scott again approached the board with a poll he had conducted showing that 65% of those surveyed favored maintaining segregated schools. Records of Minutes of the Board of Education, June 23, 1941 and July 11, 1941 Topeka Plaindealer, July 4, 1941.

[23] See Topeka Plaindealer, October 16, 1931 and April 22, 1932 Raymond Reynolds to Roy Wilkins, May 2, 1932 and Raymond Reynolds to Walter White, April 23, 1932, Topeka Branch Office Files, NAACP Papers.

[24] Topeka Plaindealer, July 4, 1941.

[25] Records of Minutes of the Board of Education, April 23, 1948.

[26]Lucinda Todd to Lucille Black, August 14, 1953, Topeka Branch Files, NAACP Papers.


History of Topeka, Kansas - History

Topeka Sesquicentennial, 1854-2004

Papan's Ferry [also found spelled Pappan ] had been established in 1843 by three French Canadian brothers and for many years served as a major crossing of the Kansas River to travelers on the Oregon-California Trail. The ferry was made of two or three dugouts joined by a log platform capable of transporting only one wagon across at a time. A rope guided the craft from shore to shore while the ferryman propelled the boat with a long pole. The ferry remained in service into the 1870s.

The land we now call Kansas became a territory of the United States in 1854 when President Franklin Pierce signed the Kansas-Nebraska Act on May 30th. The Kansas-Nebraska Act proved to be a momentous event in directing the destinies of this nation, for it allowed the citizens of this new territory to decide the question of whether to enter the Union as a free state or slave state.

On December 5, 1854, nine men gathered in a makeshift log cabin located on open prairie at the banks of the Kansas River near Papan's Ferry. These gentlemen formed the Topeka Town Association and chose Cyrus K. Holliday their leader. He would help to found the Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe Railroad, Merchants Nation Bank, and served as Mayor several times. Because the legislation allowed the citizens to decide the question of free state or slave state, these nine men agreed the embryo town would be a free-state haven. Fry W. Giles, who served as Secretary of the Association, would serve as the first postmaster in 1855. He opened the first bank in May of 1865 and wrote "Thirty Years In Topeka," published in 1886. Daniel H. Horne would serve as a Captain in the 2nd Kansas State Militia. M. C. Dickey became a prominent businessman and the United States government agent to the Kansas Indians during the territorial period. He strove to make Kansas a free state and Topeka its capital. Charles Robinson later serve as the first governor after statehood, 1861-1863. Enoch Chase built a three story hotel, "Chase House", in the fall of 1856. Others included Loring Cleland, George Davis, e Jacob B. Chase. The Association selected the name Topeka on January 1, 1855, and to name the streets after the Presidents.

The cabin was constructed of unhewn logs and covered with prairie sod. It was about 12 by 14 feet with an un mortared chimney. This construction led to a fire that burned the cabin almost to the ground. It is said that one of the residents had a tent, used as shelter until the cabin was rebuilt that winter, using sod. The original site of the city embraced the quantity of 684 acres that sold for $1.25 per acre, as set out in the Pre-exemption Act of 1841.

By spring of 1855 Topeka consisted of six houses made of logs or shakes plus several sod houses. The first child was born and named "Topeka." Land was donated to Mr. J.T. Jones to establish a "store." Mr. E.C.K. Garvey published the first copy of the Kansas Freeman on July 4, 1855. Miss Sarah C. Harlan was engaged to teach on September 1, 1855. The first brick school was erected in the summer of 1857 on Harrison near 5th Street. In January of 1856 Mr. Walter Oakley was offered land to build a three-story hotel on the NE corner of Kansas Ave. and 5th Street named "Topeka House." In the fall of 1856 John Ritchie began construction of the Ritchie Block at 6thStreet and Kansas Avenue. It was to become the first home of the Kansas State executive offices and the state senate. Ritchie's home at 1116 Madison would play an important role in his activities with the Underground Railroad.

The city's progress was impeded to some extent by the "border ruffians" troubles, Indian uprising, and protracted seasons of drought. Under the leadership of Holliday, the citizens soon made Topeka the largest and fastest-growing town in the county. Topeka was incorporated in 1857 and became the Shawnee County seat on October 4, 1858, after an election where it beat out the pro-slave town of Tecumseh. When Kansas was admitted into the Union as a state, January 29, 1861, Topeka became the State Capitol.

The first bridge across the Kansas River was completed in May of 1857, but it was lost in flooding in July of the same year. A second bridge was completed in October of 1865.

The design inside the oval at the top of this page has been rendered in gold plate as the eighth in a series commemorating Topeka's "Miracle of Kansas Avenue" holiday celebration. Artist Marjorie J. Vogel is its designer. The ornament is available for purchase at these downtown locations: Briman's Jewelers, David's Jewelers, Hillmer's, Irish & More, Tammi's Antiques, Wolfe's Camera, or at the Museum Store at the Kansas Museum of History. Para mais informações, ligue para Downtown Topeka, Inc .: (785) 234-9336.

As informações publicadas aqui são quase textuais do cartão de literatura que acompanha o & quotMiracle of Kansas Avenue & quot enfeite de feriado do Sesquicentenário.

Mais informações sobre os primeiros Shawnee County estão disponíveis em Livros da coleção de Kansas.

Todas as fotos e cópias de 2003 por Carol Yoho
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