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Linha do tempo de Ptolomeu XIII Theos Philopator

Linha do tempo de Ptolomeu XIII Theos Philopator


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Ptolomeu XIV Theos Philopator II

Nossos editores irão revisar o que você enviou e determinar se o artigo deve ser revisado.

Ptolomeu XIV Theos Philopator II, (Grego: “Ptolomeu, o Deus que ama o Pai”) (nascido c. 59 — morreu em julho de 44 aC, rei macedônio do Egito de 47 a 44 aC, co-regente com sua irmã mais velha, a famosa Cleópatra VII, por quem ele teria sido morto em 44 para abrir caminho para Ptolomeu XV César (Cesário), filho dela por Júlio César.

Após a morte de seu irmão Ptolomeu XIII, Teos Filopator, no final da Guerra Alexandrina entre César e as forças ptolomaicas, Ptolomeu XIV foi elevado por César à co-regência com Cleópatra. Quando sua irmã seguiu César para Roma em 46, Ptolomeu a acompanhou. Pouco está registrado sobre sua estadia lá, mas após a morte de César, quando sua irmã voltou ao Egito, o jovem rei morreu - provavelmente por ordem de Cleópatra - e seu filho, Ptolomeu César, tornou-se governante conjunto com a rainha.

Este artigo foi revisado e atualizado mais recentemente por Michael Levy, Editor Executivo.


Guerra civil

Eles conseguiram forçá-la a fugir para Alexandria, mas ela logo organizou seu próprio exército e uma guerra civil começou no Egito. Logo sua outra irmã começou a reivindicar o trono como Arsinoe IV (48 & # 821147 aC), complicando ainda mais a situação.

Nesse ponto, o general romano derrotado Pompeu veio ao Egito em busca de refúgio de seu rival Júlio César. Inicialmente, Ptolomeu XIII e Pothinus fingiram ter aceitado seu pedido, mas em 29 de setembro de 48 AC, o próprio Pothinus assassinou o general, na esperança de ganhar o favor de César quando o general vitorioso chegasse. Quando César chegou, foi presenteado com a cabeça de seu rival falecido e ex-aliado, mas, segundo consta, em vez de ficar satisfeito, reagiu com repulsa e ordenou que o corpo de Pompeu fosse localizado e recebesse um funeral romano adequado. Cleópatra VII teve mais sucesso em ganhar o favor de César e se tornou sua amante. César providenciou a execução de Potino e o retorno oficial ao trono de Cleópatra VII, embora ela nunca tivesse abdicado oficialmente de seu casamento com Ptolomeu XIII.

Ainda determinado a depor Cleópatra VII, Ptolomeu XIII aliou-se a Arsínoe IV. Juntos, eles organizaram as facções do exército leais a eles contra os leais a Cleópatra VII e a parte relativamente pequena de seu exército que acompanhou César ao Egito. A batalha entre as facções beligerantes ocorreu em meados de dezembro de 48 aC dentro da própria Alexandria, que sofreu sérios danos, incluindo (segundo algumas fontes) o incêndio de alguns dos edifícios que compunham a Biblioteca de Alexandria.

A chegada de reforços romanos de Pérgamo deu a vitória a César e Cleópatra VII, forçando Ptolomeu XIII e Arsinoe IV a fugir da cidade. Ptolomeu XIII supostamente se afogou em 13 de janeiro de 47 aC enquanto tentava cruzar o Nilo. Se ele estava tentando fugir ou em busca de negociações, permanece incerto pelas fontes da época. Cleópatra VII permaneceu o governante incontestado do Egito, embora ela nomeou seu irmão mais novo Ptolomeu XIV (47 & # 821144 AC) seu novo co-governante.


Conteúdo

Ptolomeu IV era o segundo filho e filho mais velho de Ptolomeu III e sua esposa Berenice II, nascido cerca de dois anos após a ascensão de seu pai ao trono do Egito. Ptolomeu IV tinha uma irmã mais velha, Arsinoe III, e três irmãos mais novos, Lisímaco (nome incerto), Alexandre e Magas, todos nascidos em 240 aC. A família inteira é comemorada por grupos de estátuas montados em Thermos e Delfos pela Liga Eetólia. [3] [4] Sob Ptolomeu III, o reino ptolomaico alcançou seu apogeu, derrotando decisivamente o reino selêucida rival na Terceira Guerra Síria (246-241 aC), financiando a oposição da Grécia continental à Macedônia Antigonida e mantendo o controle de quase o toda a costa leste do Mediterrâneo. No entanto, o reinado também foi marcado pela primeira revolta egípcia nativa contra o domínio ptolomaico, em 245 aC. Nos anos finais do reinado de Ptolomeu III, a Guerra Cleomeneana (229-222 aC) estourou na Grécia e, apesar de receber apoio ptolomaico substancial, Cleomenes III de Esparta foi completamente derrotado por uma coalizão liderada por Antigonida e forçado a fugir para o Egito . [5] [6]

Em algum momento entre outubro e dezembro de 222 aC, Ptolomeu III morreu e Ptolomeu IV foi coroado rei. O novo rei tinha cerca de vinte anos e estava sob a forte influência de dois aristocratas proeminentes: Sosibius e Agathocles, irmão da amante de Ptolomeu, Agathoclea. Com a ascensão de Ptolomeu, Sosibius planejou um expurgo em grande escala da família real a fim de eliminar qualquer um que pudesse se opor a ele. O tio Lisímaco de Ptolomeu IV foi provavelmente assassinado nessa época. [7] [8] Acredita-se que a mãe de Ptolomeu, Berenice II, apoiasse seu irmão mais novo, Magas, que ocupava importantes comandos militares e era popular no exército, então Magas morreu escaldado na banheira. [9] [4] Berenice morreu pouco depois e teria sido envenenada. [10] [11] Em contraste, a irmã de Ptolomeu, Arsínoe III, foi trazida para uma associação próxima com o rei. No final de 220 aC, Ptolomeu se casou com sua irmã mais velha, revivendo a tradição de casamento entre irmãos que havia sido iniciada pelo avô de Ptolomeu II Filadelfo e permaneceria a norma para o resto da dinastia. [12]

Quarta Guerra Síria (219–217) Editar

Em 222 aC Antíoco III assumiu o trono selêucida e imediatamente provou ser um líder dinâmico, determinado a restaurar o poder selêucida e reverter as perdas que os selêucidas sofreram na Terceira Guerra Síria. Em 221 aC, um ano após sua ascensão, Antíoco III invadiu os territórios ptolomaicos na Cele-Síria. Ele foi rejeitado pelo governador ptolomaico da região, Teódoto, e forçado a virar para o leste como resultado da revolta de seu sátrapa da Média, Molon. [13] [14]

Na primavera de 219 aC, Antíoco III tentou novamente, atacando e capturando a principal cidade portuária e "coração da dinastia selêucida" Selêucia Pieria, que estava sob controle ptolomaico desde 246 aC. Imediatamente depois disso, Teódoto, que havia se tornado impopular na corte ptolomaica, mudou para o lado selêucida, trazendo Cele Síria e uma grande parte da frota ptolomaica com ele. [15] Antíoco recebeu a rendição de Tiro e Ptolemais Ake, mas ficou atolado em cercos prolongados de Sidon e Dora. [16] [14]

No meio disso, houve uma revolta em Alexandria, liderada por Cleomenes III de Esparta, que Políbio apresenta como uma séria ameaça ao regime de Ptolomeu IV. Ptolomeu III havia prometido restaurar Cleomenes, que agora vivia em Alexandria com uma força de 3.000 mercenários, ao trono espartano, mas sua morte pôs fim a esses planos. Inicialmente, Ptolomeu IV e Sosíbio haviam condescendido com Cleomenes, vendo-o como um contra-ataque a Magas. Mas depois da morte de Magas, o interesse de Ptolomeu diminuiu e Sosibius mandou colocar o espartano em prisão domiciliar. Em 219 aC, enquanto Ptolomeu IV estava em Canopus, Cleomenes se libertou e tentou liderar um levante armado contra Sosíbio. Ele e seus seguidores lançaram um ataque à cidadela principal em Alexandria, na esperança de libertar os homens aprisionados lá, mas esse ataque não teve sucesso e o povo de Alexandria não respondeu ao seu chamado para se levantar. Cleomenes e seus seguidores cometeram suicídio. [17] [18]

Os esforços de Antíoco para consolidar seu controle sobre a Cele Síria duraram até 219 aC. No início do inverno, ele teve que negociar um cessar-fogo com Ptolomeu IV. Negociações formais de paz seguiram-se em Seleucia Pieria, mas não parecem ter sido empreendidas de boa fé por nenhum dos lados. Antíoco recusou-se a considerar o retorno de Selêucia Pieria aos Ptolomeus, enquanto Ptolomeu exigiu que Antíoco reconhecesse Aqueu, o de fato governante da Ásia Menor, que foi considerado um rebelde pela corte selêucida, como parte da peça. [19] [14]

Sosibius e Agathocles usaram o cessar-fogo para chicotear o exército ptolomaico, enquanto Antíoco III o usou para se preparar para uma nova ofensiva. No início de 218 aC, Antíoco obliterou as forças ptolomaicas em Berytus em terra e no mar, abrindo caminho para a invasão da Síria Cele. Lá ele capturou Filadélfia, mas não conseguiu ganhar o vale do sul de Beqa'a, Damasco ou Sidon. [20] [14]

Em 217 aC, Ptolomeu IV e Arsinoe III lideraram o exército egípcio no Levante, onde enfrentou o exército de Antíoco na batalha em Raphia em 22 de junho de 217 aC. Esta foi uma das maiores batalhas da Era Helenística, com mais de 150.000 soldados participando do combate corpo a corpo. No início da batalha, as forças do elefante ptolomaico foram derrotadas e Antíoco seguiu em frente atacando a cavalo e quebrando a asa esquerda ptolomaica. Políbio (geralmente hostil a Ptolomeu) representa a repentina aparição de Ptolomeu nas linhas de frente como o ponto de virada decisivo na batalha, inspirando suas tropas a lutar e derrotar o resto do exército selêucida que se virou e fugiu enquanto Antíoco ainda perseguia o fugitivo Ptolomeu soldados na ala esquerda. Quando descobriu o que havia acontecido, Antíoco não teve escolha a não ser se retirar para Antioquia. [21] [14]

Após a batalha, Ptolomeu começou a trabalhar para reorganizar a situação na Cele Síria e enviou Sosíbio para negociar com Antíoco. No final do verão, ele invadiu a Selêucida Síria, forçando Antíoco a aceitar um tratado de paz. Ptolomeu IV reteve os territórios que haviam ocupado no início da guerra, exceto, aparentemente, Selêucia Pieria, e ele recebeu uma enorme soma de ouro. Em 12 de outubro, Ptolomeu havia retornado ao Egito, onde a vitória foi celebrada por um sínodo sacerdotal em Mênfis, que emitiu o decreto de Raphia. Os termos relativamente brandos da paz e o fracasso de Ptolomeu em capitalizar sua vitória partindo para a ofensiva causaram alguma surpresa entre os estudiosos modernos. O decreto de Raphia se refere de forma pouco clara à "traição que os comandantes das tropas perpetraram", que pode ser relevante para A decisão de Ptolomeu de fazer as pazes. [22] [14]

Relações exteriores no reinado posterior (217-205 aC) Editar

Após a Quarta Guerra Síria, Antíoco III rapidamente recuperou suas forças e liderou expedições bem-sucedidas contra outros inimigos. Provavelmente como resultado, as interações de Ptolomeu com outros estados se concentraram em manter relações pacíficas e prevenir guerras.

Na Grécia continental, Ptolomeu IV tentou reconstruir a influência ptolomaica que havia sofrido um sério revés sob Ptolomeu III como resultado da Guerra Cleomeneana. Em 217 aC, os diplomatas de Ptolomeu ajudaram a negociar a Paz de Naupactus, que pôs fim à Guerra Social entre a Macedônia Antigonida e a Liga Eetólia. [23] Ele teve muito menos sucesso em suas tentativas de negociar a paz entre a Macedônia e a República Romana na Primeira Guerra da Macedônia (215-205 aC). [24] Ptolomeu fez grandes contribuições financeiras a várias cidades gregas para ganhar seu favor. Ele foi responsável pelas muralhas da cidade de Gortyn em Creta [25] Ptolomeu foi homenageado por seus benefícios com monumentos e cultos em sua homenagem em várias cidades, incluindo Rodes e Oropus [26] [27]

No oeste, Ptolomeu manteve a neutralidade amigável com a República Romana e Cartago, que lutavam entre si na Segunda Guerra Púnica (218-201 aC). Ele recebeu uma embaixada amigável dos romanos em 210 aC, solicitando uma oferta de grãos para ajudar a alimentar o populus faminto. Não se sabe como Ptolomeu respondeu a este pedido. [28] Como seus predecessores, Ptolomeu manteve relações particularmente estreitas com o reino de Siracusa sob o rei Hiero II, mas a ascensão de seu neto Hierônimo em 215 aC ameaçou perturbar o equilíbrio cuidadoso que Ptolomeu havia mantido, uma vez que ele repetidamente tentou trazer o Ptolomeus na Segunda Guerra Púnica no lado cartaginês. [29] A situação foi resolvida com seu assassinato em 214 AC. [30]

Revolta egípcia e morte (206–204 aC) Editar

Algum tempo depois do fim da Quarta Guerra Síria, revoltas eclodiram no próprio Egito. Os combates ocorreram no norte do país no Delta e separadamente no Alto Egito, onde os combates levaram à interrupção dos trabalhos de construção do Templo de Hórus em Edfu em 207–206 aC. [31] As razões para essas revoltas não são claras. O historiador helenístico Políbio argumentou que eles foram um resultado natural da decisão de Ptolomeu de armar os egípcios durante a Quarta Guerra Síria. [32] Günther Hölbl argumenta que o fato de que os rebeldes atacaram os templos egípcios sugere que foi "uma rebelião das classes mais baixas inspirada pela injustiça social", que foi exacerbada pelos pesados ​​impostos necessários para financiar aquela guerra. [33] Em outubro ou novembro de 205 aC, o líder da revolta do sul capturou a cidade de Tebas e fez-se coroar Faraó, tomando o nome de Horwennefer, traduzido em fontes gregas como Hugronaphor. Apesar dos esforços ptolomaicos para suprimir seu regime, Horwennefer manteria sua independência por quase vinte anos, até que finalmente foi capturado em agosto de 186 aC. [34] [35]

A revolta significou que as forças ptolomaicas foram incapazes de defender o sul do Egito das incursões da Núbia. Provavelmente em 207–06 aC, o rei Arqamani de Meroe assumiu o controle dos Dodecaschoenus. Vários projetos de construção de templos que foram realizados nesta região foram concluídos por Arqameni ou seu sucessor Adikhalamani. Em muitos casos, a obra de Ptolomeu IV foi simplesmente apropriada, apagando seu nome das inscrições e substituindo-o pelo de Arqameni. [36]

No meio desse conflito, em julho ou agosto de 204 aC, Ptolomeu IV morreu em circunstâncias pouco claras. Uma fonte recente, João de Antioquia menciona um incêndio no palácio. Arsinoe III também morreu nessa época. De acordo com Justin, ela havia se divorciado e assassinado por Ptolomeu IV sob a influência de sua amante Agathoclea, pouco antes de sua própria morte. De acordo com Políbio, ela foi assassinada por Sosíbio. Depois de alguns dias durante os quais a morte de Ptolomeu IV foi mantida em segredo, seu filho de seis anos, Ptolomeu V Epifânio, que era co-regente desde 210 aC, foi formalmente proclamado rei com Sosíbio e o irmão de Agatóclea, Agátocles, como seus regentes. [37] [2] [30]

Editar culto dinástico ptolomaico

Como os primeiros monarcas ptolomaicos, Ptolomeu IV foi proclamado uma divindade em sua ascensão ao trono, como o Theos Philopator (Deus que ama o pai). Particularmente após a Quarta Guerra Síria, Ptolomeu IV sistematizou o culto dinástico, reforçando os laços entre a adoração do rei reinante e os cultos de Alexandre o Grande e Dioniso. [36]

Em 216-215 aC, após as celebrações da vitória na Quarta Guerra Síria, Ptolomeu IV e sua esposa como o Theoi Philopatores (Deuses que amam o pai) foram formalmente incorporados ao culto dinástico. Isso significava que eles foram adicionados ao título de Sacerdote de Alexandre o Grande em Alexandria, que liderava o festival de Ptolemaia e cujo nome e titularidade eram usados ​​para nomear o ano em todos os documentos oficiais e privados. Isso seguiu o padrão estabelecido pelos predecessores de Ptolomeu, particularmente Ptolomeu III, cuja incorporação ao culto dinástico parece ter feito parte das celebrações da vitória na Terceira Guerra Síria. [2]

A fim de afirmar a unidade desse culto dinástico, Ptolomeu mandou demolir o túmulo existente de Alexandre, o Grande, e os túmulos de cada um dos reis ptolomaicos de Alexandria. Uma nova estrutura piramidal foi construída no distrito do palácio de Alexandria para abrigar os corpos de Alexandre e dos Ptolomeus juntos. Esta estrutura parece ter sido consagrada no festival Ptolemaia de 215-14 AC. [38] [36] Ao mesmo tempo, Ptolomeu IV incorporou o culto dos fundadores dinásticos Ptolomeu I e Berenice I como os Theoi Soteres (Deuses salvadores) no principal culto dinástico supervisionado pelo sacerdote de Alexandria. Provavelmente também em 215-14 aC, Ptolomeu IV instituiu um novo culto na cidade grega de Ptolemais, no sul do Egito, dedicado a Ptolomeu I e ao monarca reinante. [36]

Em 211 aC, Ptolomeu IV parece ter começado a propagar outro culto para sua falecida mãe Berenice II, no modelo do culto anterior para a avó de Ptolomeu, Arsinoe II. Um templo para Berenice Sozousa (Berenice que salva) foi estabelecida em Alexandria, perto da costa, e parece ter sido associada à proteção dos marinheiros, paralelamente ao culto de Arsinoe II. Berenice também recebeu uma sacerdotisa especial, a Atlético (portador do prêmio), que marchou na procissão de Ptolemaia e apareceu nos registros oficiais da data anterior ao canéfora (carregador da cesta) de Arsinoe II. Sacerdotisas semelhantes seriam estabelecidas para rainhas posteriores nos reinados seguintes. [36]

Ptolomeu também enfatizou fortemente o culto a Dionísio e o vinculou intimamente ao culto dinástico. Dionísio era o deus grego do vinho e estava intimamente associado ao ideal real de opulência e luxo, conhecido em grego como tryphe, que Ptolomeu desejava cultivar. Vários novos festivais de Dionísio foram inaugurados, nos quais o próprio Ptolomeu liderou as procissões, batendo em um tímpano. [39] Ele renomeou várias áreas de Alexandria em homenagem ao deus e seus atributos. Algum tempo antes de 217 aC, Ptolomeu ordenou que todos os sacerdotes de Dioniso fossem a Alexandria para serem registrados e submeter seus livros sagrados e ritos misteriosos à inspeção do governo. Isso demonstra o desejo de afirmar seu controle total da adoração a Dionísio em seu reino. O próprio Ptolomeu foi referido como o Neos Dionysos (Novo Dionísio) e retratado com atributos do deus em imagens. [36] Equações com outras divindades também foram feitas em imagens reais: um notável conjunto de octodracmos de ouro o retrata com a coroa raiada de Apolo ou Hélios, o tridente de Poseidon e a égide de Atenas, Zeus e Alexandre, o Grande.

Muitas cidades gregas que estavam sob o controle de Ptolomeu ou alinhadas com ele também estabeleceram cultos oficiais em sua homenagem durante seu reinado. As cidades gregas desse período regularmente concediam tais cultos a monarcas e outros indivíduos poderosos, geralmente em agradecimento por uma benção específica. Exemplos notáveis ​​são encontrados em Jaffa e outras cidades do Levante após a vitória em Raphia. [36]


A linha do tempo

  • 320 AEC: Alexandre conquista o Egito sem esforço como uma campanha secundária secundária em sua conquista do Império Persa.
  • 323 aC: Alexandre morre na Babilônia ao retornar da conquista do que hoje é o Afeganistão, o vale do rio Indo e as áreas da Ásia Central ao norte do Afeganistão. Após sua morte, seus generais dividem o império de Alexandre. Ptolomeu fica com o Egito. Cleópatra é descendente de Ptolomeu.
  • 168 AEC: Roma estabelece um protetorado do Egito.
  • 69 AEC: Cleópatra nasce no Egito. Ela é a sétima na dinastia Ptolomeu a levar o nome Cleopatra, que significa glória do pai. Ela é a segunda filha de Ptolomeu XII. Ela e o resto dos Ptolomeus eram de ascendência grega macedônia quase pura, possivelmente de alguma ascendência iraniana, mas não egípcia.
  • 58 AEC: Ptolomeu XII, pai de Cleópatra, é expulso do Egito.
  • 51 aC: Ptolomeu XII é devolvido ao poder por um exército romano. Ele morre mais tarde naquele ano e o trono do Egito vai, de acordo com os desejos de Ptolomeu, para Ptolomeu XIII e Cleópatra. Ptolomeu XIII é o irmão de dez anos de Cleópatra. Cleópatra tem cerca de 18 anos e governou por um curto período como co-regente com seu pai. No esquema egípcio, os faraós se casam com uma irmã para garantir que o governo nunca deixe a família real. Cleópatra e Ptolomeu se casam. Não poderia ter havido qualquer afeto entre Cleópatra e seu irmão. Cleópatra estava determinada a governar.
  • 49 aC: Os guardiões de Ptolomeu XIII instigam uma revolta contra o governo de Cleópatra e a expulsam de Alexandria.
  • 48 aC: Júlio César estava envolvido em uma guerra civil com outro líder romano, Pompeu. Pompeu foi derrotado em uma batalha e fugiu para o Egito. César o estava perseguindo, mas Pompeu foi assassinado ao chegar ao Egito, antes que César chegasse ao Egito. César ficou com tempo ocioso.

Cleópatra combina um encontro íntimo com César enrolando-se em um tapete que é entregue na residência de César. Quando o tapete foi desenrolado, uma animada rainha egípcia de 21 anos emerge. César tinha cerca de 52 anos na época.

Marco Antônio decide, sem motivo aparente, atacar o Império Parta (Persa). Ele chama Cleópatra para se juntar a ele em Tarso. Marco Antônio precisava do apoio financeiro e militar de Cleópatra para sua invasão. Ele conheceu Cleópatra 13 anos antes, quando ela tinha 14 anos. Aquele encontro foi inconseqüente.

O encontro deles com Tarso foi tudo menos inconseqüente. Cleópatra, tendo perdido a proteção do homem forte, César precisava de outro líder romano para protegê-la. Marco Antônio ficou tão cativado por Cleópatra que desistiu de seus planos de invasão do Império Parta e foi com Cleópatra de volta para sua capital, Alexandria. Pelas imagens de Cleópatra nas moedas de seu reino, ela não era uma grande beleza, então sua atração vinha do encanto de sua personalidade e de seu intelecto.

Cleópatra deu à luz aos filhos de Antônio. Eles eram gêmeos, um menino chamado Alexander Helios e uma menina chamada Cleopatra Selene.

Marco Antônio escapa da derrota e se junta a Cleópatra em seu navio, mas fica furioso com ela por ter precipitado desnecessariamente a derrota em Ácio. Depois de vários dias, ele cede e ele e Cleópatra ficam juntos em Alexandria.

Marco Antônio se revelou um perdedor e Cleópatra precisa de outra pessoa que possa protegê-la. Otaviano comunica a Cleópatra que, se ela matar Marco Antônio, ele pode resolver alguma coisa com ela. Cleópatra percebe que não é poderosa o suficiente para expulsar Marco Antônio do Egito ou assassiná-lo. Ela concebe uma trama diabólica. Ela tem uma mensagem enviada a Marco Antônio dizendo que ela se matou. Ao saber que seu amado estava morto, ele caiu sobre sua espada. O ferimento não o mata de uma vez e ele próprio foi levado para onde deveria estar o corpo de Cleópatra. Ele a encontra viva e diz a ela para fazer as pazes com Otaviano.

Após a morte de Marco Antônio, Cleópatra percebe que Otaviano nunca pode tratá-la como nada além de um inimigo e que ele a levará e seus filhos a Roma para desfilar em um triunfo da vitória. Ela envia Cesário com protetores de confiança para se esconder no leste do Egito, perto do Mar Vermelho. Cleópatra primeiro pretende cometer suicídio ateando fogo ao mausoléu onde ela reuniu seus tesouros. Soldados romanos conseguem entrar no mausoléu e frustram seus planos. Ela é levada cativa. Cleópatra então providencia para que uma cobra venenosa, uma áspide, seja contrabandeada para ela em uma cesta de figos. Ela então comete suicídio permitindo que a áspide morda seu peito. Ela providenciou para que ela e Marco Antônio fossem enterrados juntos. Otaviano enviou agentes para caçar Cesário e matá-lo. Assim terminou a triste vida de Cleópatra, Rainha do Egito aos 39 anos de idade. Ela foi a última da dinastia Ptolomeu.


Regime

Culto dinástico ptolomaico

O Egito ptolomaico tinha um culto dinástico, centrado no festival Ptolomaia e no sacerdote anual de Alexandre o Grande, cujo título completo incluía os nomes de todos os monarcas ptolomaicos e aparecia em documentos oficiais como parte da fórmula de data. Provavelmente no festival Ptolemaia em 9802, Ptolomeu V foi proclamado o Theos Epiphanes Eucharistos (Deus Manifesto, Beneficente) e seu nome foi adicionado ao título de Sacerdote de Alexandre. Quando ele se casou com Cleópatra I em 9807/8, o casal real foi divinizado como o Theoi Epiphaneis (Deuses Manifestos) e o título completo do Sacerdote de Alexandre foi modificado em conformidade. & # 9142 & # 93

Desde a morte de Arsinoe II, as rainhas ptolomaicas falecidas foram homenageadas com um culto dinástico separado, incluindo uma sacerdotisa separada que marchava em procissões religiosas em Alexandria atrás do sacerdote de Alexandre o Grande e cujos nomes também apareciam em fórmulas de datação. Essa tendência continuou sob Ptolomeu V com o estabelecimento de um culto para sua mãe, Arsinoe III em 9802. Ao contrário do canéforo de Arsínoe II e do atlóforo de Berenice II, a sacerdotisa de Arsínoe não tinha nenhum título especial e servia por toda a vida, em vez de um único ano. & # 9143 & # 93 & # 9142 & # 93

Com a perda da maioria das possessões ptolomaicas fora do Egito na Quinta Guerra Síria, Chipre assumiu um papel muito mais importante dentro do império ptolomaico e isso foi afirmado pelo estabelecimento de uma estrutura religiosa centralizada na ilha. O governador (estrategos) de Chipre passou a ser também o sumo sacerdote da ilha (arquière), responsável por manter uma versão do culto dinástico na ilha. & # 9142 & # 93

Ideologia faraônica e religião egípcia

Como seus predecessores, Ptolomeu V assumiu o papel tradicional egípcio de Faraó e o apoio concomitante à elite sacerdotal egípcia. Como sob Ptolomeu III e IV, a relação simbiótica entre o rei e a elite sacerdotal foi afirmada e articulada pelos decretos dos sínodos sacerdotais. Sob Ptolomeu V, houve três deles, todos os quais foram publicados em estelas em hieróglifos, Demótico e Grego foram publicados em todo o Egito. & # 9144 & # 93

O primeiro desses decretos foi o decreto de Mênfis, aprovado em 27 de março de 9805, um dia após a coroação de Ptolomeu como Faraó, no qual Ptolomeu V é apresentado como a 'imagem de Hórus, filho de Ísis e Osíris'. A descrição do decreto da vitória de Ptolomeu sobre os rebeldes de Lycopolis e de sua coroação baseia-se fortemente em imagens tradicionais que apresentavam o Faraó como um novo Hórus, recebendo a realeza de seu pai morto, a quem ele vingou matando os inimigos do Egito e restaurando a ordem. Em homenagem a seus benefícios, os sacerdotes concederam-lhe honras religiosas baseadas nas concedidas pelos sínodos sacerdotais a seu pai e seu avô: eles concordaram em erigir uma estátua de Ptolomeu V no santuário de cada templo no Egito e celebrar um festival anual no aniversário de Ptolomeu. & # 9144 & # 93

Essas honras foram aumentadas no decreto Philensis II aprovado em setembro de 9815 sobre a supressão da revolta de Ankhmakis. Os sacerdotes comprometeram-se a erguer outra estátua de Ptolomeu V disfarçada de 'Senhor da Vitória' no santuário de cada templo do Egito, ao lado de uma estátua da divindade principal do templo, e a celebrar um festival em homenagem a Ptolomeu V e Cleópatra Eu, todos os anos, no dia da derrota de Ankhmakis. & # 9145 & # 93 & # 9144 & # 93 Este decreto foi revisado no decreto Philensis I, aprovado no outono de 9816 sobre a entronização de um touro Apis. Este decreto restabeleceu as honras para Arsinoe Filadelfo e Theoi Filopatores (Ptolomeu IV e Arsínoe III) nos templos do Alto Egito, que haviam sido abolidos durante a revolta de Ankhmakis. Também concedeu a Cleópatra I todas as várias honras concedidas a Ptolomeu V nos decretos anteriores. & # 9144 & # 93

Os predecessores de Ptolomeu, desde a época de Alexandre, o Grande, haviam seguido uma política abrangente de construção de templos, destinada a garantir o apoio da elite sacerdotal. Ptolomeu não foi capaz de fazer isso na mesma escala que seus predecessores. Uma razão para isso foram as circunstâncias financeiras mais difíceis do Egito durante o reinado de Ptolomeu. Outra foi a perda de grandes seções do país para os rebeldes - no templo de Hórus em Edfu, por exemplo, havia sido planejado que um grande conjunto de portas seria instalado em 9795, mas a rebelião significou que isso não ocorrer até o final da década de 9810 (e início da década de 9820, KG). A construção realizada sob Ptolomeu V concentrou-se na parte norte do país, particularmente no santuário do Touro Apis e no templo de Anúbis em Memphis. Hölbl interpreta este trabalho como parte de um esforço para construir Mênfis como o centro da autoridade religiosa egípcia, às custas de Tebas, que tinha sido um reduto da revolta egípcia. & # 9146 & # 93


Co-governante do Egito, turbulência interna

Filho do Faraó Ptolomeu XII do Egito (80 & # x201358 aC e 55 & # x201351 aC), ele sucedeu seu pai na primavera de 51 aC como co-governante do Egito por seu casamento com sua irmã mais velha Cleópatra VII do Egito (69 & # x201330 BC). Em outubro de 50 aC, Ptolomeu XIII foi promovido a governante sênior junto com ela, embora o eunuco Pothinus agisse como regente em seu lugar.

Na primavera de 48 aC, Ptolomeu XIII e Pothinus tentaram depor Cleópatra VII devido ao seu crescente status de rainha. Seu rosto apareceu em moedas cunhadas, por exemplo, enquanto o nome de Ptolomeu XIII foi omitido em documentos oficiais. Ptolomeu pretendia se tornar o governante principal, com Pothinus atuando como o poder por trás do trono.

Ptolomeu XIII e Pothinus conseguiram forçar Cleópatra a fugir para a Síria, mas ela logo organizou seu próprio exército e uma guerra civil começou no Egito. Logo sua outra irmã começou a reivindicar o trono como Arsinoe IV do Egito (r. 48-47 aC), complicando ainda mais a situação.

Nesse ponto, o derrotado general romano Pompeu, o Grande, veio ao Egito em busca de refúgio de seu rival Júlio César. Inicialmente, Ptolomeu XIII fingiu ter aceitado seu pedido, mas em 29 de setembro de 48 aC mandou assassinar o general na esperança de ganhar o favor de César quando o general vitorioso chegasse. Quando César chegou, foi presenteado com a cabeça de seu rival falecido e ex-aliado, mas, segundo consta, em vez de ficar satisfeito, reagiu com repulsa e ordenou que o corpo de Pompeu fosse localizado e recebesse um funeral romano adequado. Cleópatra VII teve mais sucesso em ganhar o favor de César e se tornou sua amante. César providenciou a execução de Potino e o retorno oficial ao trono de Cleópatra VII, embora ela nunca tivesse abdicado oficialmente de seu casamento com Ptolomeu XIII.

Ainda determinado a depor Cleópatra VII, Ptolomeu XIII aliou-se a Arsínoe IV. Juntos, eles organizaram as facções do exército leais a eles contra os leais a Cleópatra VII e a parte relativamente pequena de seu exército que acompanhou César ao Egito. A batalha entre as facções beligerantes ocorreu em meados de dezembro de 48 aC dentro da própria Alexandria (Cerco de Alexandria (47 aC)), que sofreu graves danos, incluindo (segundo algumas fontes) o incêndio de alguns dos edifícios que compunham a Biblioteca de Alexandria.

Após a chegada de reforços romanos, a Batalha do Nilo (47 aC) se seguiu e resultou na vitória de César e Cleópatra, forçando Ptolomeu XIII a fugir da cidade. Ptolomeu XIII supostamente se afogou em 13 de janeiro de 47 aC enquanto tentava cruzar o Nilo. Se ele estava tentando fugir ou em busca de negociações, permanece incerto pelas fontes da época. Cleópatra VII permaneceu a governante incontestada do Egito, embora ela nomeou seu irmão mais novo Ptolomeu XIV do Egito (40 aC) seu novo co-governante.


Ptolomeu XII Auletes

Ptolomeu reinou durante o período helenístico. Ele é considerado filho ilegítimo de Ptolomeu IX Sóter, talvez com uma mulher alexandrina. Mas ele pode ser filho de Ptolomeu IX com Cleópatra IV.

Seu reinado como rei foi interrompido por uma rebelião geral que resultou em seu exílio de 58 a 55 aC. Assim, Ptolomeu XII governou o Egito de 80 a 58 aC e de 55 aC até sua morte em 51 aC. Ptolemy XII was generally described as a weak, self-indulgent man, a drunkard, and a music lover.

Ptolemy may have had two wives. He married Cleopatra Tryphaena (referred to as Cleopatra V[5] or Cleopatra VI in the literature), who may have been either a sister or a cousin. Cleopatra Tryphaena is not mentioned after 69 BC and it is not clear who the mother of Ptolemy's three youngest children is. His children include:

  1. Possibly a daughter named Cleopatra Tryphaena. Porphyry mentions a daughter Cleopatra Tryphaena who ruled with her sister Berenice. Strabo however states that Ptolemy had three daughters of whom the eldest has been referred to Berenice III. Suggesting that the Cleopatra Tryphaena referred to by Porphyry may have been Ptolemy's wife, not his daughter. Many experts now identify Cleopatra VI with Cleopatra V of Egypt, Ptolemy's wife.
  2. Berenice IV
  3. Cleopatra VII
  4. Arsinoe IV
  5. Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator
  6. Ptolemy XIV of Egypt

His first reign (80� BC)

In 80 BC, Ptolemy XII's predecessor Ptolemy XI was removed by the Egyptian population from the throne of Egypt after the king had killed his coregent and step mother Berenice III. When Ptolemy XI died without a male heir, the only available male descendents of the Ptolemy I lineage were the illegitimate sons of Ptolemy IX by an unknown Greek concubine. The boys were living in exile in Sinope, at the court of Mithridates VI, King of Pontus. As the eldest of the boys Ptolemy XII was proclaimed king as Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos and married his sister, Tryphaena. Ptolemy XII was coregent with his daughter Cleopatra VI Tryphaena and his wife Cleopatra V Tryphaena.

However, Ptolemy XI had left the throne to Rome in his will, therefore Ptolemy XII was not the legitimate successor. Nevertheless, Rome did not challenge Ptolemy XII's succession because the Senate was unwilling to acquire an Egyptian expansion.

Ptolemy XII's personal cult name (Neos Dionysos) earned him the ridiculing sobriquet Auletes (flute player) — as we learn from Strabo's writing (Strabo XVII, 1, 11):

Now all at kings after the third Ptolemy, being corrupted by luxurious living, have administered the affairs of government badly, but worst of all the fourth, seventh, and the last, Auletes, who, apart from his general licentiousness, practiced the accompaniment of choruses with the flute, and upon this he prided himself so much that he would not hesitate to celebrate contests in the royal palace, and at these contests would come forward to vie with the opposing contestants.

Before Ptolemy XII's reign, the geographical distance between Rome and Egypt resulted in an indifferent attitude towards each other. Nevertheless, Egyptians asked the Romans to settle dynastic conflicts During his reign, Ptolemy XII attempted to secure his own fate and the fate of his dynasty by means of a pro-Roman policy. In 63 BC, it appeared that Pompey would emerge as the leader of a Roman struggle, thus Ptolemy sought to form a patron-client relationship with the Roman by sending him riches and extending an invitation to Alexandria. Pompey accepted the riches but refused the invitation. Nevertheless, a patron relationship with a leader in Rome did not guarantee his permanence on the throne, thus Ptolemy XII soon afterwards travelled to Rome to negotiate a bribe for an official recognition of his kingship. After paying a bribe of six thousand talents to Julius Caesar and Pompey, a formal alliance was formed (a foedus) and his name was inscribed into the list of friends and allies of the people of Rome (amici et socii populi Romani).

Exile in Rome (58� BC)

In 58 BC, Ptolemy XII failed to comment on the Roman conquest of Cyprus, a territory ruled by his brother, thereby inciting the Egyptian population to start a rebellion. Egyptians were already aggravated by heavy taxes (to pay for the Roman bribes) and a substantial increase in the cost of living. Ptolemy XII fled to Rome, possibly with his daughter Cleopatra VII, in search of safety. His daughter Berenice IV became his successor. She ruled as coregent with her sister (or possibly mother) Cleopatra VI Tryphaena. A year after Ptolemy XII's exile, Cleopatra VI Tryphaena died and Berenice ruled alone over Alexandria from 57 to 56 BC.

From Rome, Ptolemy XII prosecuted his restitution but met opposition with certain members of the Senate. Ptolemy XII's old ally Pompey housed the exiled king and his daughter and argued on behalf of Ptolemy's restoration in the Senate. During this time, Roman creditors realized that they would not get the return on their loans to the Egyptian king without his restoration. Thus in 57 BC, pressure from the Roman public forced the Senate's decision to restore Ptolemy. However, Rome did not wish to invade Egypt to restore the king since the Sibylline books stated that if an Egyptian king asked for help and Rome proceeded with military intervention, great dangers and difficulties would occur.

Egyptians heard rumors of Rome's possible intervention and disliked the idea of their exiled king's return. Cassius Dio reported that a group of one hundred men were sent as envoys from Egypt to make their case to the Romans against Ptolemy XII's restoration, but Ptolemy had their leader (a philosopher named Dion) poisoned and most of the other protesters killed before they reached Rome to plead their desires.

Restoration (55� BC)

Ptolemy XII finally recovered his throne by paying Aulus Gabinius 10,000 talents to invade Egypt in 55 BC. After defeating the frontier forces of the Egyptian kingdom, Aulus Gabinius's army proceeded to attack the palace guards but the guards surrendered before a battle commenced.

The exact date of Ptolemy XII's restoration is unknown the earliest possible date of restoration is January 4, 55 BC and the latest possible date was June 24 the same year. Nevertheless, upon entering the palace, Ptolemy had Berenice and her supporters executed. From then on, he reigned until he fell ill in 51 BC. Around two thousand Roman soldiers and mercenaries, the so-called Gabiniani, were stationed in Alexandria to ensure Ptolemy XII's authority on the throne. In exchange, Rome was able to exert its power over the restored king. His daughter Cleopatra VII became his coregent.

At the moment of Ptolemy XII's restoration, Roman creditors demanded the return on their investments but the Alexandrian treasury could not repay the king's debt. Learning from previous mistakes, Ptolemy XII shifted popular resentment of tax increases from the king to a Roman, his main creditor Gaius Rabirius Postumus, whom he appointed Dioiketes (minister of finance). So Rabirius was placed in charge of debt repayment. Perhaps Gabinius had also put pressure on Ptolemy XII to appoint Rabirius, who had now direct access to the financial resources of Egypt but exploited the land too much. The king had to imprison Rabirius to protect his life from the angry people. Then he allowed him to escape. The Roman immediately left Egypt and went back to Rome at the end of the year 54 BC. There he was accused de repetundis, but defended by Cicero and he was probably acquitted. Ptolemy, also, permitted a debasing of the coinage as an attempt to repay the loans. Near the end of Ptolemy's reign, the value of Egyptian coins dropped to about fifty percent of its value at the beginning of his reign.

Before his death, Ptolemy XII chose his daughter Cleopatra VII as his coregent. In his will, he declared that she and her brother Ptolemy XIII should rule the kingdom together. To safeguard his interests, he made the people of Rome executors of his will. Since the Senate was busy with its own affairs, Pompey (as Ptolemy XII's ally) approved the will.

“Throughout his long-lasting reign the principal aim of Ptolemy was to secure his hold on the Egyptian throne so as to eventually pass it to his heirs. To achieve this goal he was prepared to sacrifice much: the loss of rich Ptolemaic lands, most of his wealth and even, according to Cicero, the very dignity on which the mystique of kingship rested when he appeared before the Roman people as a mere supplicant.”


Militares

Ptolemaic Egypt, along with the other Hellenistic states outside of the Greek mainland after Alexander the Great, had its armies based on the Macedonian phalanx and featured Macedonian and native troops fighting side by side.

The Ptolemaic military was filled with diverse peoples from across their territories. At first most of the military was made up of a pool of Greek settlers who, in exchange for military service, were given land grants. These made up the majority of the army.

With the many wars the Ptolemies were involved in, their pool of Macedonian troops dwindled and there was little Greek immigration from the mainland so they were kept in the royal bodyguard and as generals and officers. Native troops were looked down upon and distrusted due to their disloyalty and frequent tendency to aid local revolts. However, with the decline of royal power, they gained influence and became common in the military.

The Ptolemies used the great wealth of Egypt to their advantage by hiring vast amounts of mercenaries from across the known world. Black Ethiopians are also known to have served in the military along with the Galatians, Mysians and others.

With their vast amount of territory spread along the Eastern Mediterranean such as Cyprus, Crete, the islands of the Aegean and even Thrace, the Ptolemies required a large navy to defend these far-flung strongholds from enemies like the Seleucids and Macedonians.

The Ptolemaic Navy ⎰] was the naval force of the Ptolemaic Kingdom and later empire from 305 to 30 BC. It was founded by King Ptolemy I. Its main naval bases were at Alexandria, Egypt and Nea Paphos or (New Paphos) in Cyprus. It operated in the East Mediterranean in the Aegean Sea, the Levantine Sea, but also on the river Nile and in the Red Sea towards the Indian Ocean. ⎱] The navy operated four naval forces including the Alexandrian Fleet, ⎲] the Aegean Fleet, ⎳] the Red Sea Fleet ⎴] and a Nile River Fleet. ⎵]


Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator Timeline - History

People - Ancient Egypt : Cleopatra VII & Ptolemy XIII

Cleopatra VII in Tour Egypt CLEOPATRA VII PTOLEMAIC DYNASTY In the springtime of 51 BC, Ptolemy Auletes died and left his kingdom in his will to his eighteen year old daughter, Cleopatra, and her younger brother Ptolemy XIII who was twelve at the time. Cleopatra was born in 69 BC in Alexandria, Egypt. She had two older sisters, Cleopatra VI and Berenice IV as well as a younger sister, Arsinoe IV. There were two younger brothers as well, Ptolemy XIII and Ptolemy XIV. It is thought that Cleopatra VI may have died as a child and Auletes had Berenice beheaded. At Ptolemy Auletes' death, Pompey, a Roman leader, was left in charge of the children. During the two centuries that preceded Ptolemy Auletes death, the Ptolemies were allied with the Romans. The Ptolemies' strength was failing and the Roman Empire was rising. City after city was falling to the Roman power and the Ptolemies could do nothing but create a pact with them. During the later rule of the Ptolemies, the Romans gained more and more control over Egypt. Tributes had to be paid to the Romans to keep them away from Egypt. When Ptolemy Auletes died, the fall of the Dynasty appeared to be even closer. According to Egyptian law, Cleopatra was forced to have a consort, who was either a brother or a son, no matter what age, throughout her reign. She was married to her younger brother Ptolemy XIII when he was twelve, however she soon dropped his name from any official documents regardless of the Ptolemaic insistence that the male presence be first among co-rulers. She also had her own portrait and name on coins of that time, ignoring her brother's. When Cleopatra became co-regent, her world was crumbling down around her. Cyprus, Coele-Syria and Cyrenaica were gone. There was anarchy abroad and famine at home. Cleopatra was a strong-willed Macedonian queen who was brilliant and dreamed of a greater world empire. She almost achieved it. Whether her way of getting it done was for her own desires or for the pursuit of power will never be known for certain. However, like many Hellenistic queens, she was passionate but not promiscuous. As far as we know, she had no other lovers other than Caesar and Antony. Many believe that she did what she felt was necessary to try to save Alexandria, whatever the price. By 48 BC, Cleopatra had alarmed the more powerful court officials of Alexandria by some of her actions. For instance, her mercenaries killed the Roman governor of Syria's sons when they came to ask for her assistance for their father against the Parthians. A group of men led by Theodotus, the eunuch Pothinus and a half-Greek general, Achillas, overthrew her in favor of her younger brother. They believed him to be much easier to influence and they became his council of regency. Cleopatra is thought to have fled to Thebaid. Between 51 and 49 BC, Egypt was suffering from bad harvests and famine because of a drought which stopped the much needed Nile flooding. Ptolemy XIII signed a decree on October 27, 50 BC which banned any shipments of grain to anywhere but Alexandria. It is thought that this was to deprive Cleopatra and her supporters who were not in Alexandria. Regardless, she started an army from the Arab tribes which were east of Pelusium. During this time, she and her sister Arsinoe moved to Syria. They returned by way of Ascalon which may have been Cleopatra's temporary base. In the meantime, Pompey had been defeated at Pharsalus in August of 48 BC. He headed for Alexandria hoping to find refuge with Ptolemy XIII, of whom Pompey was a senate-appointed guardian. Pompey did not realize how much his reputation had been destroyed by Pharsalus until it was too late. He was murdered as he stepped ashore on September 28, 48 BC. The young Ptolemy XIII stood on the dock and watched the whole scene. Four days later, Caesar arrived in Alexandria. He brought with him thirty-two hundred legionaries and eight hundred cavalry. He also brought twelve other soldiers who bore the insignia of the Roman government who carried a bundle of rods with an ax with a blade that projected out. This was considered a badge of authority that gave a clear hint of his intentions. There were riots that followed in Alexandria. Ptolemy XIII was gone to Pelusium and Caesar placed himself in the royal palace and started giving out orders. The eunuch, Pothinus, brought Ptolemy back to Alexandria. Cleopatra had no intentions of being left out of any deals that were going to be made. She had herself smuggled in through enemy lines rolled in a carpet. She was delivered to Caesar. Both Cleopatra and Ptolemy were invited to appear before Caesar the next morning. By this time, she and Caesar were already lovers and Ptolemy realized this right away. He stormed out screaming that he had been betrayed, trying to arouse the Alexandrian mob. He was soon captured by Caesar's guards and brought back to the palace. It is thought that Caesar had planned to make Cleopatra the sole ruler of Alexandria. He thought she would be a puppet for Rome. The Alexandrian War was started when Pothinus called for Ptolemy XIII's soldiers in November and surrounded Caesar in Alexandria with twenty thousand men. During the war, parts of the Alexandrian Library and some of the warehouses were burned. However, Caesar did manage to capture the Pharos lighthouse, which kept his control of the harbor. Cleopatra's sister, Arsinoe, escaped from the palace and ran to Achillas. She was proclaimed the queen by the Macedonian mob and the army. Cleopatra never forgave her sister for this. During the fighting, Caesar executed Pothinus and Achillas was murdered by Ganymede. Ptolemy XIII drowned in the Nile while he was trying to flee. Because of his death, Cleopatra was now the sole ruler of Egypt. Caesar had restored her position, but she now had to marry her younger brother Ptolemy XIV, who was eleven years old. This was to please the Alexandrians and the Egyptian priests. Surely Caesar went through all of this trouble for more than his infatuation with the queen of Egypt. It must have been out of arrogance and his desire to get his hands on Egypt's vast resources. However, Cleopatra's intelligence and inheritance did have some influence as well. In what must have been very calculated on his part, she became pregnant rather quickly. For him to have a son to carry the throne was very appealing to him. Caesar and Cleopatra took an extended trip up the Nile for about two months. They stopped in Dendara where Cleopatra was worshipped as a Pharaoh. Caesar would never have this honor. Caesar only left the boat to attend important business in Syria just a few weeks before the birth of their son, Caesarion (Ptolemy Caesar) who was born on June 23, 47 BC. During July of the year 46 BC, Caesar returned to Rome. He was given many honors and a ten-year dictatorship. These celebrations lasted from September to October and he brought Cleopatra over, along with her entourage. The conservative Republicans were very offended when he established Cleopatra in his home. Her social manners did not make the situation any better. She upset many. Cleopatra had started calling herself the New Isis and was the subject of much gossip. She lived in luxury and had a statue made of gold placed by Caesar, in the temple of Venus Genetrix . Caesar also openly claimed Caesarion as his son. Many were upset that he was planning to marry Cleopatra regardless of the laws against bigamy and marriages to foreigners. However, on the Ides of March of 44 BC, all of that came to an end. Caesar was assassinated outside the Senate Building in Rome. He was killed in a conspiracy by his Senators. Many of the Senators thought he was a threat to the republic's well-being. It was thought that Caesar was making plans to have himself declared king. After Caesar's murder, Cleopatra fled Rome and returned home to Alexandria. Caesar had not mentioned Cleopatra or Caesarion in his will. She felt her life, as well as that of her child, was in great danger. Upon returning to Alexandria, she had her consort, Ptolemy XIV, assassinated and established Caesarion as her co-regent at the age of four. She found Egypt suffering from plagues and famine. The Nile canals had been neglected during her absence which caused the harvests to be bad and the inundations low. The bad harvests continued from 43 until 41 BC. Trying to help secure recognition for Caesarion with Caesar's former lieutenant Dolabella, Cleopatra sent Dolabella the four legions that Caesar had left in Egypt. Cassius captured the legions which caused Dolabella to commit suicide at Laodicea during the summer of 43 BC. She was planning to join Mark Antony and Octavian (who became Augustus) with a large fleet of ships after Dolabella's death, but was stopped by a violent storm. Cleopatra watched in the time that followed, who would be the next power in Rome. After Brutus and Cassius had been killed and Antony, Octavian and Lepidus were triumphant, Cleopatra knew which one she would have to deal with. Octavian went back to Italy very ill, so Antony was the one to watch. Her son gained his right to become king when Caesar was officially divinized in Rome on January 1, 42 BC. The main object was the promotion of Octavian, but the triumvirs knew of Cleopatra's aid to Dolabella. Cleopatra was invited by Mark Antony to Tarsus in 41 BC. She already knew enough about him to know how to get to him. She knew about his limited strategic and tactical abilities, his blue blood, the drinking, his womanizing, his vulgarity and his ambition. Even though Egypt was on the verge of economic collapse, Cleopatra put on a show for Mark Antony that even Ptolemy Philadelphos couldn't have done better. She sailed with silver oars, purple sails with her Erotes fanning her and the Nereid handmaids steering and she was dressed as Aphrodite, the goddess of love. This was a very calculated entrance considered vulgar by many. It was a vulgar display to attract the attention of a vulgar man. Mark Antony loved the idea of having a blue-blooded Ptolemy woman. His former mistress as well as his current wife, Fulvia, were merely middle class. Cleopatra and Antony spent the winter of 41 to 40 in Alexandria. According to some sources, Cleopatra could get out of him whatever she wanted, including the assassination of her sister, Arsinoe. Cleopatra may not have had so much influence over him later on. He took control of Cyprus from her. Actually it may have been Cleopatra who was the exploited one. Antony needed money and Cleopatra could be generous when it benefited her as well. In the spring of 40 BC, Mark Antony left Cleopatra and returned home. He did not see her for four years. Antony's wife, Fulvia had gotten into a serious movement against Octavian over veterans' allotments of land. She fled to Greece and had a bitter confrontation with Antony. She became ill and died there. Antony patched things up with Octavian that same autumn by marrying Octavian's sister, Octavia. She was a beautiful and intelligent woman who had been recently widowed. She had three children from her first marriage. In the meantime, Cleopatra had given birth to twins, one boy and one girl, in Alexandria. Antony's first child by Octavia was a girl. Had Octavia given him a son, things might have turned out different. Antony kept the idea of the treasures of the Ptolemies and how much he wanted it. When he finally did get the treasures, the standard interest rate in Rome fell from 12 percent to 4. Mark Antony left Italy and went to deal with the Parthians. Octavia had just had another daughter and went with him just as far as Corcyra. He gave her the excuse that he did not want to expose her to the dangers of the battles and sent her home. He told her that she would be more use to him at home in Rome keeping peace with her brother, Octavian. However, the first thing that he did when he reached Antioch, was to send for Cleopatra. Their twin children were officially recognized by Antony and were given the names of Alexander Helios and Cleopatra Selene. Mark Antony gave her much land which was very essential to Egypt. He gave her Cyprus, the Cilician coast, Phoenicia, Coele-Syria, Judea and Arabia. This allowed Egypt to be able to build ships from the lumber from Cilician coast. Egypt then built a large fleet. Antony had planned a campaign against the Parthians. He obviously needed Cleopatra's support for this and in 36 BC, he was defeated. He became more indebted to her than ever. They had just had a third child. On their return to Syria, she met him and what was left of his army, with food, clothing and money. Early in 35 BC, he returned to Egypt with her. Antony's wife, Octavia was in Athens with supplies and reinforcements waiting for her husband. He sent her a letter telling her to not come any further. Her brother, Octavian, tried to provoke Antony into a fight. Octavian would release troops as well as ships to try to force Antony into a war, which, by this time was almost inevitable. Antony might have been able to patch things up with Octavia and her brother had he returned to Rome in 35 BC. Cleopatra probably did her best to keep him in Alexandria. Octavia remained completely loyal to Antony through all of this. In 34 BC, Antony had a campaign into Armenia, which was successful and financially rewarding. He celebrated his triumph with a parade through Alexandria with Cleopatra presiding over as the New Isis. Antony presented himself as the New Dionysus as part of his dream of the Graeco-Roman rule. Within a few days, a more political ceremony took place in which the children were given their royal titles with Antony sitting on the throne as well. Ptolemy XV (Caesarion) was made the co-ruler with his mother and was called the King of Kings. Cleopatra was called the Queen of Kings, which was a higher position than that of Caesarion's. Alexander Helios, which meant the sun, was named Great King of the Seleucid empire when it was at its highest. Cleopatra Selene, which meant the moon, was called Queen of Cyrenaica and Crete. Cleopatra and Antony's son, Ptolemy Philadelphos was named King of Syria and Asia Minor at the age of two. Cleopatra had dreams of becoming the Empress of the world. She was very close to achieving these dreams and her favorite oath was, "As surely as I shall yet dispense justice on the Roman Capital." In 32 to 31 BC, Antony finally divorced Octavia. This forced the Western part of the world to recognize his relationship with Cleopatra. He had already put her name and face on a Roman coin, the silver denarii. The denarii was widely circulated throughout the Mediterranean. By doing this, Antony's relationship with the Roman allegiance was ended and Octavian decided to publish Antony's will. Octavian then formally declared war against Cleopatra. Antony's name was nowhere mentioned in the official declaration. Many false accusations were made against Cleopatra saying that she was a harlot and a drunken Oriental. These accusations were most likely made out of fear of Cleopatra and Antony. Many probably thought that the New Isis would prevail and that Antony would start up a new wave of world conquest and rule in a co-partnership from Alexandria. However, Octavian's navy severely defeated Antony in Actium, which is in Greece, on September 2, 31 BC. Octavian's admiral, Agrippa, planned and carried out the defeat. In less than a year, Antony half-heartedly defended Alexandria against the advancing army of Octavian. After the defeat, Antony committed suicide by falling on his own sword in 30 BC. After Antony's death, Cleopatra was taken to Octavian where her role in Octavian's triumph was carefully explained to her. He had no interest in any relationship, negotiation or reconciliation with the Queen of Egypt. She would be displayed as a slave in the cities she had ruled over. She must have had memories of her sister, Arsinoe, being humiliated in this way. She would not live this way, so she had an asp, which was an Egyptian cobra, brought to her hidden in a basket of figs. She died on August 12, 30 BC at the age of 39. The Egyptian religion declared that death by snakebite would secure immortality. With this, she achieved her dying wish, to not be forgotten. The only other ruler to cast a shadow on the fascination with Cleopatra was Alexander who was another Macedonian. After Cleopatra's death, Caesarion was strangled and the other children of Cleopatra were raised by Antony's wife, Octavia. Her death was the mark of the end of the Egyptian Monarchs. The Roman Emperors came into to rule in Egypt. The Ptolemies were Macedonian in decent, but ruled as Egyptians, as Pharaohs. Cleopatra was the last Pharaoh of Egypt. What is often not associated with Cleopatra was her brilliance and her devotion to her country. She was a quick-witted woman who was fluent in nine languages, however, Latin was not one of them. She was a mathematician and a very good businesswoman. She had a genuine respect for Caesar, whose intelligence and wit matched her own. Antony on the other hand almost drove her insane with his lack of intelligence and his excesses. She dealt with him and made the most of what she had to do. She fought for her country. She had a charismatic personality, was a born leader and an ambitious monarch who deserved better than suicide.

Cleopatra VII in Wikipedia Cleopatra VII Philopator (in Greek, Κλεοπάτρα Φιλοπάτωρ (Late 69 BC[1] August 12, 30 BC) was the last person to rule Egypt as an Egyptian pharaoh after her death Egypt became a Roman province. She was a member of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Ancient Egypt, and therefore was a descendant of one of Alexander the Great's generals who had seized control over Egypt after Alexander's death. Most Ptolemeis spoke Greek and refused to learn Egyptian, which is the reason that Greek as well as Egyptian languages were used on official court documents like the Rosetta Stone.[2] By contrast, Cleopatra learned Egyptian and represented herself as the reincarnation of an Egyptian Goddess. Cleopatra originally ruled jointly with her father Ptolemy XII Auletes and later with her brothers, Ptolemy XIII and Ptolemy XIV, whom she married as per Egyptian custom, but eventually she became sole ruler. As pharaoh, she consummated a liaison with Gaius Julius Caesar that solidified her grip on the throne. She later elevated her son with Caesar, Caesarion, to co-ruler in name. After Caesar's assassination in 44 BC, she aligned with Mark Antony in opposition to Caesar's legal heir, Gaius Iulius Caesar Octavianus (later known as Augustus). With Antony, she bore the twins Cleopatra Selene II and Alexander Helios, and another son, Ptolemy Philadelphus. Suas uniões com seus irmãos não produziram filhos. After losing the Battle of Actium to Octavian's forces, Antony committed suicide. Cleopatra followed suit, according to tradition killing herself by means of an asp bite on August 12, 30 BC.[3] She was briefly outlived by Caesarion, who was declared pharaoh, but he was soon killed on Octavian's orders. Egypt became the Roman province of Aegyptus. Though Cleopatra bore the ancient Egyptian title of pharaoh, the Ptolemaic dynasty was Hellenistic, having been founded 300 years before by Ptolemy I Soter, a Macedonian Greek general of Alexander the Great.[4][5][6][7] As such, Cleopatra's language was the Greek spoken by the Hellenic aristocracy, though she was reputed to be the first ruler of the dynasty to learn Egyptian. She also adopted common Egyptian beliefs and deities. Her patron deity was Isis, and thus, during her reign, it was believed that she was the re-incarnation and embodiment of the goddess. Her death marked the end of the Ptolemaic Kingdom and Hellenistic period and the beginning of the Roman era in the eastern Mediterranean. To this day, Cleopatra remains a popular figure in Western culture. Her legacy survives in numerous works of art and the many dramatizations of her story in literature and other media, including William Shakespeare's tragedy Antony and Cleopatra, Jules Massenet's opera Cl op tre and the 1963 film Cleopatra. In most depictions, Cleopatra is put forward as a great beauty and her successive conquests of the world's most powerful men are taken to be proof of her aesthetic and sexual appeal. In his Pens es, philosopher Blaise Pascal contends that Cleopatra's classically beautiful profile changed world history: "Cleopatra's nose, had it been shorter, the whole face of the world would have been changed."[8] Biography Accession to the throne The identity of Cleopatra's mother is unknown, but she is generally believed to be Cleopatra V Tryphaena of Egypt, the sister or cousin and wife of Ptolemy XII, or possibly another Ptolemaic family member who was the daughter of Ptolemy X and Cleopatra Berenice III Philopator if Cleopatra V was not the daughter of Ptolemy X and Berenice III.[9] Cleopatra's father Auletes was a direct descendant of Alexander the Great's general, Ptolemy I Soter, son of Arsinoe and Lacus, both of Macedon. Centralization of power and corruption led to uprisings in and the losses of Cyprus and Cyrenaica, making Ptolemy's reign one of the most calamitous of the dynasty. When Ptolemy went to Rome with Cleopatra, Cleopatra VI Tryphaena seized the crown but died shortly afterwards in suspicious circumstances. It is believed, though not proven by historical sources, that Berenice IV poisoned her so she could assume sole rulership. Regardless of the cause, she did until Ptolemy Auletes returned in 55 BC, with Roman support, capturing Alexandria aided by Roman general Aulus Gabinius. Berenice was imprisoned and executed shortly afterwards, her head allegedly being sent to the royal court on the decree of her father, the king. Cleopatra was now, at age 14, put as joint regent and deputy of her father, although her power was likely to have been severely limited. Ptolemy XII died in March 51 BC, thus by his will making the 18-year-old Cleopatra and her brother, the 10-year-old Ptolemy XIII joint monarchs. The first three years of their reign were difficult, due to economic difficulties, famine, deficient floods of the Nile, and political conflicts. Although Cleopatra was married to her young brother, she quickly made it clear that she had no intention of sharing power with him. In August 51 BC, relations between Cleopatra and Ptolemy completely broke down. Cleopatra dropped Ptolemy's name from official documents and her face appeared alone on coins, which went against Ptolemaic tradition of female rulers being subordinate to male co-rulers. In 50 BC Cleopatra came into a serious conflict with the Gabiniani, powerful Roman troops of Aulus Gabinius who had left them in Egypt to protect Ptolemy XII after his restoration to the throne in 55 BC. This conflict was one of the main causes for Cleopatra's soon following loss of power. The sole reign of Cleopatra was finally ended by a cabal of courtiers, led by the eunuch Pothinus, removing Cleopatra from power and making Ptolemy sole ruler in circa 48 BC (or possibly earlier, as a decree exists from 51 BC with Ptolemy's name alone). She tried to raise a rebellion around Pelusium, but she was soon forced to flee with her only remaining sister, Arsinoe.[10] Relation with Julius Caesar Assassination of Pompey While Cleopatra was in exile, Pompey became embroiled in the Roman civil war. In the autumn of 48 BC, Pompey fled from the forces of Caesar to Alexandria, seeking sanctuary. Ptolemy, only fifteen years old at that time, had set up a throne for himself on the harbour, from where he watched as on September 28, 48 BC, Pompey was murdered by one of his former officers, now in Ptolemaic service. He was beheaded in front of his wife and children, who were on the ship from which he had just disembarked. Ptolemy is thought to have ordered the death to ingratiate himself with Caesar, thus becoming an ally of Rome, to which Egypt was in debt at the time, though this act proved a miscalculation on Ptolemy's part. When Caesar arrived in Egypt two days later, Ptolemy presented him with Pompey's severed head Caesar was enraged. Although he was Caesar's political enemy, Pompey was a Consul of Rome and the widower of Caesar's only legitimate daughter, Julia (who died in childbirth with Pompey's son). César tomou a capital egípcia e se impôs como árbitro entre as reivindicações rivais de Ptolomeu e Cleópatra. Relationship with Julius Caesar Eager to take advantage of Julius Caesar's anger toward Ptolemy, Cleopatra had herself smuggled secretly into the palace to meet with Caesar. One legend claims she entered past Ptolemy s guards rolled up in a carpet.[11] She became Caesar s mistress, and nine months after their first meeting, in 47 BC, Cleopatra gave birth to their son, Ptolemy Caesar, nicknamed Caesarion, which means "little Caesar". At this point Caesar abandoned his plans to annex Egypt, instead backing Cleopatra's claim to the throne. After a war lasting six months between the party of Ptolemy XIII and the Roman army of Caesar, Ptolemy XIII was drowned in the Nile and Caesar restored Cleopatra to her throne, with another younger brother Ptolemy XIV as her new co-ruler.[12] Although Cleopatra was 21 years old when they met and Caesar was 52, they became lovers during Caesar s stay in Egypt between 48 BC and 47 BC. Cleopatra claimed Caesar was the father of her son and wished him to name the boy his heir, but Caesar refused, choosing his grandnephew Octavian instead. During this relationship, it is also rumored that Cleopatra introduced Caesar to her astronomer Sosigenes of Alexandria, who first proposed the idea of leap day and leap years. Cleopatra, Ptolemy XIV and Caesarion visited Rome in summer 46 BC, where the Egyptian queen resided in one of Caesar's country houses.[13] The relationship between Cleopatra and Caesar was obvious to the Roman people and it was a scandal, because the Roman dictator was already married to Calpurnia Pisonis. But Caesar even erected a golden statue of Cleopatra represented as Isis in the temple of Venus Genetrix (the mythical ancestress of Caesar's family), which was situated at the Forum Julium.[14] The Roman orator Cicero said in his preserved letters that he hated the foreign queen.[15] Cleopatra and her entourage were in Rome when Caesar was assassinated on 15 March, 44 BC.[16] She returned with her relatives to Egypt. When Ptolemy XIV died allegedly poisoned by his older sister - Cleopatra made Caesarion her co-regent and successor and gave him the epithets Theos Philopator Philometor (= Father- and motherloving God).

Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator in Wikipedia Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator (Greek: Πτολεμαῖος Θεός Φιλοπάτωρ, Ptolemaĩos The s Philop tōr, lived 62 BC/61 BC January 13, 47 BC?, reigned from 51 BC) was one of the last members of the Ptolemaic dynasty (305 30 BC) of Egypt. Co-ruler of Egypt, inner turmoil - Son of Pharaoh Ptolemy XII of Egypt (80 58 BC and 55 51 BC), he succeeded his father in the spring of 51 BC as co-ruler of Egypt by his marriage to his older sister Cleopatra VII of Egypt (69 30 BC). In October of 50 BC, Ptolemy XIII was promoted to senior ruler along with her, although the eunuch Pothinus acted as regent for him. In the spring of 48 BC, Ptolemy XIII and Pothinus attempted to depose Cleopatra VII due to her increasing status as Queen. Her face appeared on minted coins, for example, while Ptolemy XIII's name was omitted on official documents. Ptolemy intended to become sole ruler, with Pothinus acting as the power behind the throne. Civil war - They managed to force her to flee to Syria, but she soon organized her own army and a civil war began in Egypt. Soon their other sister started to claim the throne as Arsinoe IV (48 47 BC), further complicating the situation. At this point defeated Roman general Pompey the Great came to Egypt seeking refuge from his pursuing rival Julius Caesar. Initially, Ptolemy XIII and Pothinus pretended to have accepted his request, but on September 29, 48 BC, Pothinus had the general murdered, in hopes of winning favor with Caesar when the victorious general arrived. When Caesar did arrive he was presented with the head of his deceased rival and former ally, but reportedly, instead of being pleased, reacted with disgust and ordered that Pompey's body be located and given a proper Roman funeral. Cleopatra VII proved more successful in winning Caesar's favor and became his lover. Caesar arranged the execution of Pothinus and the official return to the throne of Cleopatra VII, though she had never officially abdicated her marriage to Ptolemy XIII. Still determined to depose Cleopatra VII, Ptolemy XIII allied himself with Arsinoe IV. Jointly, they organized the factions of the army loyal to them against those loyal to Cleopatra VII and the relatively small part of his army that had accompanied Caesar to Egypt. The battle between the warring factions occurred in mid-December of 48 BC inside Alexandria itself, which suffered serious damage, including (according to some sources)[citation needed] the burning of some of the buildings which comprised the Library of Alexandria. The arrival of Roman reinforcements from Pergamum gave the victory to Caesar and Cleopatra VII, forcing Ptolemy XIII and Arsinoe IV to flee the city. Ptolemy XIII reportedly drowned on January 13, 47 BC while attempting to cross the Nile. Whether he was attempting to flee or was seeking negotiations remains uncertain from sources of the time. Cleopatra VII remained the unchallenged ruler of Egypt, although she named their younger brother Ptolemy XIV of Egypt (47 44 BC) her new co-ruler.


Assista o vídeo: 4 The Universe Aristotle and Ptolemy (Pode 2022).


Comentários:

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  3. Kian

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