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História da Ute AT-76 - História

História da Ute AT-76 - História


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Ute

(AT-76: dp. 1.689 (tl.); 1. 205'0 "b. 38'6", dr. 14'3 "
s. 16,25 k .; cpl. 85; uma. 1 3 ", 2 4dmm .; cl. Navajo)

Ute (AT-76) foi estabelecido em 27 de fevereiro de 1942 em Alameda, Califórnia, pela United Engineering Co .; lançado em 24 de junho de 1942, patrocinado pela Sra. Robert Tate, e encomendado em 13 de dezembro de 1942, o tenente William F. Lewis no comando.

Após o treinamento de shakedown na região da Baía de São Francisco, o Ute começou em 10 de fevereiro de 1943, com destino às águas do Alasca, e chegou ao porto holandês uma semana depois. Ute imediatamente navegou para Amchitka, no Alasca, onde participou das operações de salvamento no transporte de ataque Arthur Middleton (APA-25), que havia sido encalhado em uma das viciosas "williwaws" comuns naquela região do mundo.

Ao longo de março, Ute, auxiliada pelo rebocador da frota Tatnuck (AT-27), continuou em seus esforços para transportar o transporte de ataque encalhado para fora da praia. Ute utilizou dois conjuntos de equipamentos de praia na tentativa de libertar o navio. Ute interrompeu esse trabalho apenas uma vez durante o mês - para ajudar o navio mercante SS Wallace a liberar o porto depois que a amarração do navio mercante se separou.

Depois de suspender suas operações no Arthur Middleton na primeira semana de abril devido ao mau tempo, a corajosa auxiliar retomou seu trabalho quando o tempo clareou no dia 8. O sucesso coroou seus esforços no dia seguinte, quando o transporte de ataque estremeceu e saiu da praia. Em poucos dias, Ute e Tatnuck partiram e rebocaram Arthur Middleton para o porto holandês, onde chegaram no dia 13.

Ute abasteceu e partiu imediatamente para o apropriadamente chamado Cold Bay, onde ajudou o navio mercante russo Krosnyl Oktyabr encalhado. Passando um cabo de reboque para o navio soviético, Ute a libertou no dia seguinte. Concluída a missão, o rebocador da frota passou por Cold Bay para Women's Bay, onde pegou dois tanques de desembarque (LCT) e seguiu via Dutch Harbor para Sweeper's Cove.

Durante a primeira semana de maio, Ute ajudou a lançar uma rede anti-submarina em Sweeper's Cove. No dia 6, ela se juntou à TF 51 enquanto os carregadores estavam navegando em direção às Ilhas Curilas para ataques contra Paramushiro para apoiar a invasão de Attu. Enquanto a força-tarefa estava voltando da operação - da qual Ute havia participado como unidade de resgate - a visibilidade reduzida fez com que o rebocador fosse separado do resto da força. Depois de falhar

para recuperar sua posição, Ute recebeu ordens para prosseguir para Attu.

Chegando àquela ilha em 12 de maio, Ute imediatamente encontrou emprego durante os primeiros desembarques ali. O navio mercante SS Perida - transportando uma equipe de combate do Exército - havia atingido uma rocha do pináculo, rompendo dois porões e estava em perigo de naufragar. O rebocador passou uma linha para a embarcação atingida e puxou-a para fora do perigo para uma posição perto da praia onde ela poderia descarregar sua carga vital.

A transferência de bombas e outros equipamentos de salvamento para Perida Ute continuou as operações de salvamento do 12º ao 28º. Durante esse período, os ataques aéreos inimigos animaram os procedimentos e fizeram com que vários navios se destacassem no mar. Ute, como um companheiro fiel, permaneceu perto da encalhada Perida para dar uma ajuda caso fosse necessário. No dia 29, Ute passou um cabo de reboque para Perida e levou-a para Adak. O valioso rebocador completou os alvos de reboque do mês.

Ute permaneceu em Adak até 8 de junho, quando se dirigiu para a Ilha Shemya. No caminho até lá, ela auxiliou o subcomprador / nave de patrulha, PC-487, que havia pouco tempo antes abalroou e afundou um submarino japonês 1- ~? 4. Levando a bordo os homens e equipamentos do caçador de submarinos, o rebocador permaneceu no local da ação até ser liberado na estação por Lamberton (DMS-2).

Ao chegar a Shemya, Ute passou a trabalhar dinamitando cardumes até o dia 16. Naquele dia, ela foi enviada para a Ilha Nizki para ajudar SS MacVeigh depois que aquele navio mercante ficou preso em um recife. Ute facilmente puxou a embarcação e ajudou Tatnuck a rebocá-la para a Baía do Massacre.

Ute realizou um pequeno trabalho de reparo em um rebocador do Exército e, em seguida, iniciou as operações de salvamento no SS MacVeigh. Essa tarefa a manteve ocupada até o dia 28, quando ela partiu para rebocar uma rede anti-submarina para Shemya. Dois dias depois, o rebocador voltou em velocidade de flanco para Attu e logo depois foi para Alexai Point para ajudar o Hulbert (AVD-6).

Ao longo das três primeiras semanas de julho de 1943, Ute tentou tirar Hulbert da praia e ainda continuou seus esforços para resgatar SS MacVeigh. Ela interrompeu os esforços no dia 19 para ajudar o mercador Delwood. No entanto, um LCT passou entre os dois navios, cortando o cabo de reboque. Mais uma vez ultrapassando a linha, Ute persistiu em sua tentativa de libertar o navio e, finalmente, conseguiu tirar o navio das rochas. Infelizmente, o dano a Delwood provou ser maior do que se pensava; e, logo depois de ter sido refluida, ela estava em uma perigosa "condição de afundamento". Trinta minutos depois, Delwood inclinou-se pesadamente para bombordo e começou a descer pela popa.

Ute se libertou do mercador que estava morrendo com uma tocha de acetileno. Felizmente, nenhum homem se perdeu na operação. Mais tarde, Ute levou o LCT danificado a reboque e entregou-o na Baía do Massacre.

Ute operou em Massacre Bay, Attu, até 7 de agosto, quando rebocou dois LCTs para Constantine Harbor Amchitka. Depois de deixar seu reboque lá, o rebocador pegou outro LCT e seguiu para Adak, onde alcançou no dia 10. Dois dias depois, ela partiu com a força de ataque destinada a Kiska. No entanto, essa operação se revelou desnecessária, uma vez que os japoneses haviam evacuado a ilha pouco tempo antes, deixando apenas alguns cães vadios para contestar a invasão.

O tempo e as minas ainda colocavam os navios em perigo. Este último danificou o destruidor Abner Read (DD-526); e, em 18 de agosto, Ute rebocou aquele contratorpedeiro para Adak.

Poucos dias depois, Ute voltou a Kiska com uma barcaça a reboque. No dia 26, ela começou a investigar o relato de que um submarino japonês afundado estava nas proximidades de Twin Rocks. Mergulhadores enviados de Ute confirmaram o relatório, localizando um submarino a bombordo em 10 braças de água.

Em 13 de setembro, Ute procedeu à localização do L ~ 'T-461 desativado; mas ao chegar ao local logo depois disso, descobriu que o LST-461 já estava em andamento, viajando no final de um cabo de reboque à popa do rebocador

Robert Pre $ ton. Ute voltou ao porto de Kiska e, no dia seguinte, foi rebocado por uma barcaça. O cabo de reboque se separou, no entanto, e o tempo forte forçou o rebocador a abandonar sua tentativa de recuperar a barcaça.

Dois dias depois, Ute seguiu para a Ilha Buldir para ajudar o LCT-56. Chegando lá no dia 19, o rebocador puxou a embarcação de desembarque e a entregou em segurança em Kiska.

No restante de setembro, o rebocador da frota lidou com uma série de trabalhos ocasionais, como retirar âncoras contaminadas e recuperar equipamentos de navios japoneses naufragados. No dia 29, ela recuperou um avião da Marinha que havia virado no porto.

Ute continuou as evoluções de salvamento em navios inimigos afundados e danificados no porto antes de se mudar para Adak no início de outubro. Lá, o rebocador teve uma disponibilidade necessária ao lado de um concurso até o dia 22, quando retornou a Kiska e navegou de lá para Attu. Lá, Ute puxou o navio mercante, SS Ole E. Rolvaag da praia, com poucos problemas, e passou o resto do mês procurando barcaças do Exército que estavam à deriva no mar.

Depois de não conseguir localizar os abandonados, Ute retornou à Baía do Massacre em 1º de novembro. Uma semana depois, ela resgatou um barco PT e rebocou-o até uma boia de atracação. No dia seguinte, o rebocador mais uma vez se dirigiu a Kiska e passou os dias resgatando navios japoneses naufragados. O clima instável do Alasca aumentou sua carga de trabalho, e Ute novamente se viu envolvida em puxar os navios para fora da praia. O destróier King (DD-242), um velho "flushdecker", encalhou em Kuluk Bay, Adak, e Ute a libertou no dia 27 antes de prosseguir para Lash Bay, Tanaga Island, para operações de resgate em LST-451.

As travessuras caprichosas de Netuno nas águas invernosas do Alasca interrompiam continuamente o trabalho de Ute no LST, e o mar agitado finalmente forçou o rebocador a deixar o ancoradouro. Ela navegou no mar até que o tempo melhorasse e então voltou para puxar o navio de desembarque alguns dias depois. Com o LST a reboque, Ute partiu para Adak, mas as condições meteorológicas e do mar pioraram e forçaram os navios a se abrigarem a sotavento da Ilha de Tanaga por dois dias antes de continuar.

Depois de finalmente entregar o LST, Ute abasteceu e correu para ajudar o navio mercante russo Valery Chkalov, um navio que se partiu ao meio no mar agitado. Chegando algumas horas depois, Ute esperou enquanto Cree (ATF-84) pegava a seção posterior do navio pela metade e então ela própria trabalhava na recuperação da metade dianteira. Ute resgatou um marinheiro soviético de um dos hulks depois que o homem saltou ao mar nas ondas geladas.

Na manhã seguinte, Ute prendeu um grapnel aos destroços e o reboque começou. No dia seguinte, o fio se partiu. Depois de várias tentativas malsucedidas de prender outro cabo de reboque ao Hulk, os engenhosos marinheiros americanos soldaram uma âncora de 400 libras a um caramanchão de carga de profundidade e dispararam na direção dos destroços. Uma segunda tentativa desse método engenhoso teve sucesso quando uma das pás da âncora prendeu no convés dos navios russos. Depois de assumir a folga, Ute rebocou o hulk mais uma vez.

Duas horas depois, porém, o cabo de reboque esfolou e se partiu. Com os abandonados à deriva sem rumo nos mares tempestuosos, nenhum movimento poderia ser feito para retomar o reboque até que a tempestade diminuísse. Então, cinco voluntários subiram a bordo da seção da proa à deriva e pegaram a linha passada de Ute e mais uma vez amarraram a corrente da âncora aos destroços. Finalmente, em 22 de dezembro, Ute transferiu sua carga para um rebocador do Exército em Sand Bay, Ilha Great Sitkin. Logo após retornar a Adak, o contra-almirante F. E. M. Whiting presenteou o tenente Lewis, oficial comandante de Ute, com a Legião de Mérito por seu desempenho no rebocador.

Posteriormente, no dia seguinte ao Natal de 1943, Ute partiu para a Ilha Shemya para ajudar o SS Scotia em terra. No caminho, uma forte tempestade forçou Ute a buscar proteção a sotavento da Ilha de Tanaga. Daí, sob novas ordens, o rebocador da frota seguiu via Attu para Kiska

onde ela obteve salvamento adicional e equipamento de mergulho necessário para o projeto de salvamento Scotia.

Pouco antes do início das operações de salvamento na Escócia, em terra, a bússola giroscópica do navio falhou, atrasando o trabalho de salvamento por quase duas semanas antes que os reparos pudessem ser efetuados. Assim que o trabalho começou, Ute foi forçado a mudar para a Ilha Tanaga para ajudar o YMS-127 aterrado. Três dias depois, o rebocador da frota puxou o caça-minas motorizado das rochas e rebocou-o para Adak antes de retornar para Attu no final do mês.

No início de fevereiro de 1944, Ute foi designado para serviço de salvamento durante outro bombardeio de instalações japonesas no Paramushiro. Liderados pelos cruzadores leves Richmond (CL-9) e Raleigh (C ~ 7), os navios americanos realizaram um bombardeio bem-sucedido; e Ute voltou para Adak.

Uma semana depois, o movimentado rebocador da frota seguiu para o porto de Constantine, em Amchitka, para salvar uma barcaça de gasolina. Depois de cruzar pela entrada do porto por um dia esperando que o tempo melhorasse, Ute entrou no porto e iniciou as operações. Após a conclusão de sua missão, quatro dias depois, ela seguiu para Kiska - para mudar as amarras de um cruzador - e de lá mudou-se para Adak para rebocar alvos. No entanto, o mau tempo impediu os exercícios programados de artilharia e o rebocador da frota voltou para Attu.

Ute operou em modo de espera durante outro bombardeio de instalações japonesas no Paramushiro no início de março. Depois de retornar a Attu, ela mudou para Adak demorando tempo suficiente para rebocar alvos lá no meio do mês antes de mudar para a Ilha Great Sitkin. Durante a última semana de março, Ute rebocou a seção da proa do navio mercante russo Valery Chkalov para o porto holandês. Mais tarde, ela retornou a Great Sitkin em abril para preparar a seção posterior daquele navio para o reboque. Saindo de Great Sitkin em 1 de maio, Ute entregou a seção de proa de Valery / Chkalov para Vancouver, British Columbia, no dia 21 e, em seguida, seguiu para Seattle para disponibilidade. Durante essa passagem pelas águas das Aleutas, o navio foi reclassificado como um rebocador de frota, ATF-76.

Depois de reparos e alterações no Puget Sound Navy Yard durante junho e a maior parte de julho, o rebocador da frota deixou Puget Sound em 28 de julho e apontou sua proa mais uma vez em direção às águas do Alasca.

Parando o tempo suficiente em Kodiak para pegar um reboque, Ute seguiu para o porto holandês, onde foi dique seco para reparos em sua quilha de esgoto. Em andamento com seu reboque novamente alguns dias depois, o rebocador da frota finalmente chegou a Adak em 21 de agosto.

Durante a primeira metade de setembro, Ute permaneceu em Adak, fazendo trabalhos ocasionais e rebocando trenós para exercícios de artilharia antes de seguir para o porto holandês em 14 de setembro. Exceto por um trabalho de salvamento para executar no YP-87, o restante do mês foi tranquilo.

Em outubro, Ute foi ao mar para ajudar o navio mercante russo SS Altgelt, que supostamente estava se partindo no mar. No entanto, o navio soviético alcançou Kodiak com segurança; e Ute voltou ao porto holandês pelo resto do mês. O navio então navegou para o sul para outra disponibilidade, desta vez na Pactfic Repair and Drydock Co. em Oakland, Califórnia.

Com reparos e testes realizados, Ute limpou a baía de São Francisco em 16 de dezembro de 1944, em um comboio com destino às ilhas havaianas. Ela chegou a Pearl Harbor dois dias depois do início do ano, 1945. Uma semana depois, ela seguiu para os Marshalls.

Rebocando calcário, uma barcaça de abastecimento de concreto, Ute tocou primeiro em Majuro, depois em Eniwetok, onde chegou em 1 de fevereiro de 1945. Lá, o rebocador de frota foi designado ao grupo de apoio logístico do TG 50.8 para atender a principal força de ataque da 5ª Frota com óleo e provisões durante o curso e, assim, permitir que a Frota permaneça no mar quase continuamente para apoiar a campanha de Iwo Jima.

Em 9 de fevereiro, Ute fez uma surtida em companhia com TG 60.8 para uma área a leste de Iwo Jima e permaneceu no mar pelo resto do mês. No dia 16, o vice-almirante Marc

R. Os aviões da Mitscher bombardearam campos de aviação, fábricas de aeronaves e navios na área de Tóquio e repetiram esses ataques no dia 17 também.

No dia 21, Ute tentou ajudar o porta-aviões Bismarok Sea (CVE-95), danificado por um kamikaze japonês. No entanto, antes que Ute pudesse chegar ao local, o mar de Bismarok afundou. Depois de procurar por sobreviventes, o rebocador da frota voltou para sua estação no grupo de trabalho.

O Grupo de Tarefas 50.8 voltou a Ulithi para um descanso, entrando naquela lagoa em 6 de março, mas fez uma nova sortida quinze dias depois para apoiar a Frota na operação contra Okinawa Gunto. Como antes, Ute fervilhava em companhia, pronta para realizar sua missão de resgate vital, mas nada glamorosa. No entanto, exceto por avistar várias minas nas proximidades, o rebocador considerou esta tarefa sem intercorrências.

Ute viajou com o TG 50.8 até 16 de abril, quando foi destacada para seguir para Okinawa. Mais uma vez, ela recebeu ordens de ajudar um dos planos danificados pelos kamikaze - desta vez, o porta-frota Franklin (CV-13). No entanto, Franklin recuperou seu poder de autopropulsão antes que Ute chegasse.

Na noite de 24 de maio, Ute atirou - mas errou - um avião japonês que passava rugindo, próximo a bordo. Na manhã seguinte, entretanto, seus artilheiros espirraram em um "Val" que tentara bombardear o indefeso SS William B. Allison. Poucas horas depois, Ute começou e agitou-se para ajudar o caça-minas de alta velocidade Butler (DMS-29), kamikazied fora do ancoradouro.

Ao anoitecer daquele dia, depois de ajudar o Butler danificado, Ute foi até Chimu Wan para extinguir um incêndio no PC-160S e ajudar aquela nave de patrulha que havia sido atingida por dois kamikazes. Durante a noite, os esforços dos bombeiros foram bem-sucedidos e Ute preparou-se para levar a embarcação a reboque.

No entanto, antes que Ute pudesse obter uma linha para o caçador de submarinos, novas ordens enviaram o rebocador em auxílio do contratorpedeiro Braine (DD-630), também vítima de um kamikaze, 40 milhas a leste de Okinawa. Ute começou, mas ao fazê-lo, um "Val" - perseguido por um trio de lutadores Corsair (F4U de Vought) - a atacou.

Sem se deixar abater pelos tiros de Ute e dos três caças, o "Val" deu um mergulho suicida na direção do rebocador da frota. Felizmente, os aviadores e os artilheiros de Ute ganharam a vantagem e lançaram o "Val" no mar a cerca de 50 metros do quarteirão do porto de Ute.

A utilidade de Ute foi provada antes do fim do mês, enquanto ela ajudava os navios nas linhas de piquete (alvos frequentes dos kamikazes) e nos portos. No dia 17, ela rebocou um LSM do ancoradouro da praia de Hagushi para Kerama Retto e, no dia seguinte, resgatou o tanque de desembarque danificado, LCT-1335. Depois que Daly (DD-519) tomou um kamikaze em 28 de abril, Ute partiu em seu auxílio, mas, como Daly conseguiu chegar a Kerama Retto por conta própria, Ute voltou para Hagushi. Naquela noite, o rebocador da frota abriu fogo contra um avião japonês que atacou navios no ancoradouro nas proximidades, e o suicida caiu a cerca de 500 metros do navio.

No dia seguinte, Haggard (DD-555), danificado por um kamikaze, solicitou assistência. Ute trouxe a "lata" danificada para Kerama Retto antes de ser enviada para Buckner Bay para trabalhar. Pouco depois de chegar lá, o rebocador salvou um LCI (embarcação de desembarque, infantaria) que havia atingido um recife e, posteriormente, aliviou outro rebocador no reboque de uma barcaça de munição. Então, por quase duas semanas, Ute executou reparos no navio mercante danificado, SS William B. Allison.

Ute localizou o destróier kamikazied Braine na tarde de 27 de maio e entregou-o, no final de um cabo de reboque, a Kerama Retto na manhã seguinte. Em seguida, Ute voltou para o aleijado William B. Allison - então com um grande vazamento e ameaçando afundar - mas interrompeu o trabalho no dia seguinte para conduzir as operações de salvamento no LST-844.

Depois de retirar o LST de um recife em 2 de junho, Ute voltou para William B. Allison e começou as operações de bombeamento. Três dias depois, ela foi ao auxílio de J. William Ditter (DM-31), depois daquela mina de luz

camada o confundiu com suicidas japoneses, e rebocou o navio danificado para Kerama Retto, o refúgio para navios agredidos e naufragando.

Ute conseguiu contribuir com alguma ação antiaérea própria no dia 11 e derrubou um avião japonês que passou por cima dela durante uma corrida suicida.

A essa altura, um dos motores de Ute estava fora de operação, de modo que o rebocador da frota partiu para Saipan no dia 16, exatamente dois meses depois de ela ter pousado pela primeira vez em Okinawa. Durante esse período, o navio esteve no alojamento geral entre 20 e 30 por cento do tempo, viu fogo antiaéreo quase todas as noites e observou aeronaves japonesas inúmeras vezes. Depois de chegar a Saipan, ela seguiu para o Golfo de Leyte para verificar a disponibilidade.

Atracado ao lado de Jason (ARH-1), Ute passou por reparos e alterações em meados de agosto de 1945, quando o Japão capitulou. Ela permaneceu na baía de San Pedro até o dia 28, quando seguiu em comboio de volta para Okinawa.

Agora que a guerra acabou, Ute foi enviado para ocupar a baixa Coreia. No início de setembro, ela seguiu para Jinsen (agora Inchon), Coréia, onde permaneceu até o meio do mês. Ela se dirigiu a Xangai, China, no dia 18, e chegou à foz do Yangtze alguns dias depois. Depois de assumir um piloto, o rebocador da frota percorreu o rio Whangpoo até Xangai, onde permaneceu pelo resto do mês.

Em 1o de outubro, Ute rebocou o navio-farol do rio Yangtze para a posição na foz desse rio e retornou a Xangai logo em seguida. No início da segunda semana de outubro, o rebocador da frota recebeu ordens para subir o Yangtze, levando a reboque seus quatro cargueiros carregados com gasolina de aviação.

Ao chegar a Hankow no dia 16, ela descarregou sua carga e voltou a Xangai em alguns dias. Seis milhas acima de Keichow, duas minas detonaram perto a bordo, deslocaram os rolamentos do eixo do rebocador, romperam seus tanques de combustível e causaram danos consideráveis ​​em todo o navio. Seize (ARS-26) ajudou o rebocador da frota aleijada; e Tekesta (ATF-93) assumiu as barcaças de Ute. O pequeno comboio chegou a Xangai em 2 de novembro. Naquele dia, Ute acompanhou o pesado navio reparador de cascos Dixie (ARM-14) e lá permaneceu em reparos temporários até o final do mês.

Em 15 de dezembro, a Ute partiu para as Marianas - em companhia e rebocada por ATR-72 - e chegou a Guam no dia seguinte ao Natal. Dessa ilha, ela continuou via Eniwetok e Kwajalein para os Estados Unidos e chegou a São Francisco em 27 de fevereiro de 1946. Depois de um dique seco no Estaleiro Naval de São Francisco de 5 a 19 de abril, o rebocador seguiu para o norte para Astoria, Oregon, onde ela foi colocada em status de fora da comissão, na reserva, em 13 de julho de 1946.

Chamada de volta ao serviço na mobilização da Guerra da Coréia, Ute foi recomissionada em Tongue Point, Oreg., Em 14 de setembro de 1951. Após a conclusão de uma revisão em Oakland em 23 de novembro de 1951, ela partiu para San Pedro e quatro semanas de treinamento intensivo em andamento. Em 4 de janeiro de 1952, Ute partiu de San Diego e rumou para o Extremo Oriente, parando em Pearl Harbor por duas semanas no caminho. Depois de tocar em Sasebo, no Japão, Ute prosseguiu para a zona de guerra da Coréia.

De 23 de fevereiro a 21 de março de 1952, Ute operou no porto de Wonsan, principalmente colocando bóias para marcar canais varridos e em Nan Do colocando bóias de amarração para barcos em tempo ruim. Ela fez uma viagem a Hungnam para substituir uma bóia de navegação vital. Durante esse período, Ute também participou de bombardeios costeiros em Wonsan, Hungnam e Songjin, engajando alvos de oportunidade.

Em 27 de fevereiro, no porto de SongJin, Ute limpou o parafuso contaminado do caça-minas AMS - 4. Em 14 de março, ela ajudou o caça-minas da República da Coreia (ROK), AMS-518, com reparos de emergência depois que o navio quebrou o eixo da hélice de estibordo e sofreu uma inundação da casa de máquinas. Após os reparos de emergência, Ute levou o caça-minas para Chinhae, na Coréia.

Ute não apenas executou tarefas de salvamento e bombardeios costeiros em Wonsan, mas também foi designada a postos de piquete dentro do iarbor e executou outras funções que incluíam o detalhe de levar correio e suprimentos para as ilhas mantidas por forças amigas. Ela também forneceu às pequenas embarcações da American e da ROK combustível, provisões e cerca de 20.000 galões de água doce.

Após a conclusão de sua primeira turnê nas águas coreanas, Ute retornou a Sasebo para um curto período de reposição. Sua segunda viagem à zona de combate a levou a Cho Do, na costa oeste da Coreia, onde operou de 31 de março a 27 de abril. Suas numerosas funções incluíam: fornecer escolta local e apoio de fogo para os LSTs a caminho de Cho Do ou Sok To, transportar correspondência e provisões para navios amigos nas imediações e consertar LCMs e caça-minas amigáveis. Todas as noites, Ute conduzia patrulhas de piquete.

Em 6 de abril, Ute iniciou o salvamento de um navio de salvamento ROK que encalhou e precisava de ajuda para se libertar e sair de perigo. Durante a operação, Ute atraiu fogo pesado de baterias costeiras comunistas; 21 cartuchos caíram entre 20 e 100 pés do navio. No entanto, o valente rebocador da frota teve uma vida encantadora, pois foi capaz de manobrar com segurança fora do alcance do canhão em todas as ocasiões, e sua tripulação não sofreu baixas.

Em 24 de abril, Ute disparou uma missão de bombardeio em terra e ganhou o apelido de "Good Shoot Ute" das forças americanas e britânicas que bloqueavam a costa oeste coreana. Os incêndios provocados pelos projéteis do navio queimaram a noite toda. A tripulação também notou várias explosões indicando danos ao inimigo. Esse noivado provou ser o último antes de ela se aposentar das águas coreanas.

Durante seu reabastecimento em Sasebo, Ute recebeu ordens de emergência para ajudar um SCAJAP LST que havia abordado a ilha de Cheju Do Esta tarefa manteve o rebocador ocupado de 29 de abril a 11 de maio, quando, com sua tarefa concluída, ela voltou para Sasebo.

A quarta viagem de Ute à zona de combate a levou de volta a Cho Do, na costa oeste da Coreia. Suas funções eram semelhantes às de suas estadias anteriores na linha, mas davam mais ênfase às capacidades de reparo da nave. Ela forneceu 10.000 galões de água doce para pequenas embarcações durante aquela excursão em particular e eondueteu uma operação de resgate bem-sucedida em um LCM danificado que havia encalhado durante uma tempestade. Após reflutuar a nave, ela a entregou a um LSD para reparos.

Na noite de 15 de junho de 1952, Ute recebeu ordem de levar uma barcaça de madeira - carregada com uma carga de gasolina, óleo, comida e água - para uma ilha nas profundezas das águas inimigas, mantida por tropas amigas. Uma vez que era imperativo que a entrega fosse feita sob a cobertura da escuridão, Ute seguiu seu caminho até a ilha que ficava a apenas 35 milhas da foz do rio Yalu e em uma área supostamente patrulhada por aviões comunistas. Inúmeros perigos de navegação e águas mal mapeadas tornavam a passagem ansiosa; mas, navegando com seu radar, o rebocador fez a viagem com sucesso e entregou a barcaça e sua carga ansiosamente aguardada em tempo recorde. Retornando a Cho Do antes do amanhecer, a patrulha aérea de combate de Ute - desde que ela não fosse descoberta por aviões inimigos - não era necessária.

As outras funções de Ute durante este período incluíram a evacuação de feridos e o transporte de prisioneiros de guerra (prisioneiros de guerra) para o cruzador ligeiro britânico, HMS Ceylon. Outras tarefas de rotina incluíam a parada e busca de sampanas alienígenas descendo o Mar Amarelo do norte. Aliviado na estação, Ute seguiu para Yokosuka, Japão, para um merecido descanso.

Naquele outono, Ute trabalhou nas águas coreanas pela quinta vez, de 20 de agosto a 30 de setembro de 1952. Durante esse tempo, ela operou em companhia do destróier Bradford (DD-545) e, em uma ocasião, testemunhou que "lata de estanho" disparando em jatos MiG que passaram por perto. O rebocador realizou trabalho de salvamento e disparou mais oito missões de bombardeio em terra.

Tendo registrado 166 dias na zona de combate, Ute rumou para Pearl Harbor em 7 de outubro. Após a disponibilidade de um pátio, o rebocador recolheu a PC1141 desativada na Ilha Johnston, devolvendo-a a Pearl Harbor em 26 de janeiro de 1963.

Ute dobrou o Pactfic, realizando tarefas de reboque de rotina, para as ilhas Midway e Wake, antes de começar sua segunda implantação do Western Pactfic (WestPac) no início de setembro. Ela então operou em águas do Extremo Oriente até março seguinte, quando voltou via Marshalls para Pearl Harbor.

Durante a década seguinte, Ute conduziu várias implantações de WestPac e operou também no Pactfic do norte. Suas missões incluíram reboque, trabalho de salvamento e missões de busca e resgate. Durante esses anos, Ute foi transportado para casa em Pearl Harbor e variou do Japão à Indochina; da Ilha Johnston ao Atol de Bikini; e de Adak - seu antigo "reduto" - para as Marianas.

No início de 1966, o envolvimento americano no Vietnã começou a aparecer na rotina do navio. O rebocador partiu de Sasebo em 27 de março, com destino ao Vietnã do Sul, com o APL-55 a reboque. Mudando para Danang logo após sua chegada em Camranh Bay, ela rebocou YD-127 para Subic Bay, Filipinas, entre 6 e 10 de abril. Dez dias depois, o rebocador veterano substituiu Bausell (DD-845) ao seguir uma traineira soviética para evitar que o navio russo interferisse nas operações dos porta-aviões americanos no Golfo de Tonkin.

Depois de continuar aquela "patrulha de gambá" por cinco dias, Ute resgatou o navio mercante, SS Excellenev, um navio que encalhou enquanto carregava munições para o Vietnã. Ela chegou ao local - na Ilha Triton 180 milhas a sudeste de Danang - em 26 de abril e, após pesquisar o fundo da costa, começou a colocar equipamentos de praia. Depois de arrancar Excellenev das garras bulldog do recife em 1602 em 30 de abril, Ute retornou ao Golfo Tonkin em 1º de maio para retomar a "patrulha de skunk".

Aliviado por Abnaki (ATF-96) em Danang em meados de maio, Ute foi para Hong Kong no dia 22 para descanso e recreação. Ela operou em águas do sudeste asiático até o verão, tocando em Kaohsiung, Taiwan, Baía de Subic; Cingapura; e Sattahip e Bangkok, Tailândia, antes de retornar a Subic Bay para manutenção.

Após uma breve visita às águas japonesas, Ute voltou a Pearl Harbor no início de outubro. Ela não voltou às áreas operacionais do WestPac novamente até o verão seguinte. Ela prestou serviços para a Marinha Real da Tailândia entre 28 e 30 de agosto e, em seguida, rebocou o APL55 de An Thoi, no Vietnã, para Sasebo, no Japão. Durante um mês naquele outono, de 15 de outubro a 15 de novembro, Ute supervisionou uma "traineira" soviética no Golfo de Tonkin com TF-77, antes de conduzir operações de salvamento em Clarke Countv (LST-601) em Doc Pho, Vietnã.

Ute passou grande parte de 1970 na área do sudeste asiático - numerando Camranh Bay, Vung Tau, Danang, Sattahip e Cingapura entre seus portos de escala. Depois de participar de operações de salvamento com SS Laredo Victorv perto de Midway, Ute voltou para a costa oeste dos Estados Unidos, rebocando dois velhos cascos da classe Fletcher, ex-O'Bannon (DD-450) e ax-Nicholas (DD449) de Pearl Do porto para o estaleiro naval da Ilha Mare entre 31 de janeiro e 14 de fevereiro de 1971.

Desdobrando-se subequentemente para a área operacional do Pactfic ao norte e, em seguida, para Pearl Harbor no meio do ano, Ute passou grande parte daquele outono em treinamento de salvamento e atualização em águas havaianas. Desdobrando-se para WestPac novamente no início de novembro, Ute "cortou" a 7ª Frota em 13 de novembro.

Ute não voltou às águas continentais da América até 1972; seu porto de origem foi oficialmente mudado de Pearl Harbor para San Diego em 15 de outubro. Uma de suas primeiras tarefas ao chegar "aos Estados Unidos" foi o reboque do antigo porta-aviões Bunker Hill (CV-17) para a Ilha de San Clemente em novembro para testes de choque. Depois que os testes foram concluídos, Ute devolveu Bunker Hill a San Diego. Comandante, Destroyer Squadron 33 relatou que o sucesso geral dos testes ". Pode ser amplamente atribuído à experiência e versatilidade do USS Ute na execução de uma variedade de atribuições."

Ute executou serviços de reboque e rebocador de costa para a Frota, ao largo da costa sul da Califórnia, em 1974. Seu serviço WestPac não terminou, no entanto, pois ela começou mais uma implantação em 7 de janeiro de 1974. Durante os sete meses que se seguiram, Ute visitou tal portos como Pearl Harbor, Subic Bay e Poro Point nas Filipinas; Cingapura; Hong Kong, Yokosuka, Kure e Sasebo no Japão; Keelung, Taiwan; e Pusan, Coreia do Sul. A Frota utilizou seus serviços em atividades diversas, como recuperação de torpedo, reboque de alvo, requalificação de mergulhador e reboque oceânico. Ela encerrou a implantação rebocando YMS-789 de Poro Point para Tacoma, Wash. Um mês de atividade agitada seguiu seu retorno de WestPac e, em seguida, o navio foi desativado e simultaneamente entregue ao Comando de transporte marítimo militar (MSC) em 30 de agosto 1974.

Tripulado por uma tripulação civil, o valioso veterano serviu ativamente na MSC até o final da década de 1970 e permaneceu na lista da Marinha em outubro de 1979.

Ute recebeu três estrelas de batalha por seu serviço na Segunda Guerra Mundial, duas por seu serviço na Guerra da Coréia e nove por seu serviço no Vietnã.


História da Ute AT-76 - História

Larchmont
(PC-487: dp. 280 1. 173'8 "b. 23 'dr. 10'10", v. 20 k.
cpl. 65 a. 2 3 ", 2 20 mm., 2 dcp., 2 atu. Cl. PC-461)

PC-487 was laid down by Consolidated Shipbuilding Corp., New York, N.Y., 6 December 1941, launched 28 February 1942 sponsored by Mrs. Johu D. Bulkeley nnd commissioned 2 June 1942, Lt. Walter G. Corneil in command.

Atter shakedown and training in New England waters PC-487 departed New York 5 July and steamed in convoy via Norfolk, Key West, and the Panama Canal to the West coast. Arriving San Diego 10 August, she received ASW sound training, thence sailed 24 August for duty in the northwesteru sea frontier.

PC-487 arrived Seattle 4 September. During the next 5 months she operated on escort, patrol, and ASW missions out of' Puget Sound and on 27 February 1843 she departed Seattle for similar duty along the Alaska Peninsula and among the Aleutians. She arrived Kodiak 4 March and sailed 2 days later via Dutch Harbor to Adak where she arrived 15 March to begin patrol and escort duty itor the Naval Auxiliary Air Facility.

Following the recapture of' Attu Island by American naval and ground forces 30 May, Adm. T. C. Kinkaid (Commander, North Paciffc Force) set up a destroyer blockade to isolate Japanese forces on Riska Island. Although Japanese surface ships under Vice Admiral Kawase successfully evacuated the island garrison 28 July, a plan to use blockade-running transport submarines for supply and evacuation missions proved disastrous.

Among those lost was I - . After completing one run to Kiska she was cruising at periscope depth north of' the Aleutians en route to Kiska. On the morning 10 June she encountered a three

ship American convoy and in a "classaic antisubmarine battle" reminiscent of the Biblical battle between David and Goliath, the Japanese submarine fell victim to a gallant, aggressive submarine chaser, PC-487.

After departing Adak 8 June to escort LST-451 and Ute (AT-76) to the 8emichi Islands east ofAttu, PC-487 neared her destination, Shemya Island, early on 10 June. While steaming through heavy fog, she made sonar contact at 0800 and went to general quarter

Three minutes later her radar detected a partially surfaced submarine, and at 0809 lookouta spotted two periscopes some 250 yards off the port bow. The spirited PC promptly increased speed 2rom 6 to 18 knots and attacked.

Turuing hard to port, PC-487 fired a spread off five depth charges which blew 18-9 to the surface. Completing her turn, the subchaser rammed 1-9 2rom the starboard "tearing both periscopes, antenna and net cutter" Blast" ing the sub's already damaged conning tower with 3-inch and 20mm. gunfire while turning, 4 minutes later the scrappy PC once again rammed the "almost completely surfaced" submarine. Steaming at 19.5 knots, she hit I-9 just forward of the conning tower. The ship `seemed to stick and pivot on top of the submarine and 2elt as though it would break in two" but the force of impact rolled the doomed I-boat over and PC - 87 slid free across her deck.

The collision heavily damaged the subchaser's bow and hull, but she continued her attack with vigor, ffring at a range of 100 yards. Four projectiles trom her 3 inch guns hit the sub at her waterline, and a fifth struck her conning tower. The stricken enemy ship sank stern first at 0824 without firing a shot and plunged with all hands into 2,200 fathoms.

With forward compartments flooded and heavily dov,n by the bow, PC-487 proceeded to Massacre Bay, Attu, for emergency repairs. On 13 June she sailed in convoy for Adak, where Black lHawk (A`9) made additional repairs to her battered hull. Steaming via Dutch Harbor 29 June, the subchaser proudly returned to Seattle 9 July for 2 months of overhaul and extensive repairs.

During the entire war only three submarine chasers scored confirmed unassisted kills on enemy submarines. PC-487 made the only solo kill against a Japanese submarine. PC-565 and PC-624 attacked and sank German U-boats in the Atlantic and the Mediterranean, respectively, but neither was as spectacular as PC-487's furious encounted with I-9.

After completing battle repairs, PC-487 returned to Alaskan waters 11 September and resumed patrol and escort missions out of Dutch Harbor. On 27 November she sailed in convoy 2Or the Hawaiian Islands where during the remainder of the war she performed similar duty out of Pearl Harbor. Following the Japanese surrender, she remained in Hawaiian waters until sailing for the west coast 20 April 1946. She reached San Pedro, CA, the 28th thence, on 3 May she departed for the east coast as escort for LSM-281. She reached Charleston, S.C., 22 May and remained there until 6 August when she steamed to Norfolk.

PC-487 decommissioned at Portsmouth, Va., 24 January 1947 and entered the Atlantic Fteserve Fleet. Whlle berthed at Norfolk, she was named Larchmont 15 February 1956. Her name was struck from the Navy list 1 July 1960.


Ute Indians

Ute Indians (who call themselves Nuciu, “The People”) are Southern Numic speakers of the Numic (Shoshonean) language family. At the time of Euro-American contact, twelve informally affiliated Ute bands inhabited most of Utah and western Colorado. They included the Cumumba (probably a Shoshone band), the Tumpanuwac, Uinta-at, San Pitch, Pahvant, and Sheberetch in Utah, and the Yamparka, Parianuc, Taviwac, Wiminuc, Kapota, and Muwac in Colorado. The bands recognized, traded, and intermarried with each other, but maintained no larger tribal organization. Band members gathered annually at their spring Bear Dance or to take advantage of some resource abundance, but otherwise remained in local residence groups of from 20 to 100 people.

Utes practiced a flexible subsistence system elegantly adapted to their environments. Extended family groups moved through known hunting and gathering territories on a seasonal basis, taking advantage of the periodic abundance of food and material resources in different ecozones. Men hunted deer, antelope, buffalo, rabbits, and other small mammals and birds with bows and arrows, spears, and nets. Women gathered seed grasses, pinenuts, berries, roots, and greens in woven baskets, and processed and stored meat and vegetal materials for winter use. Utes took advantage of the abundance of fish in Utah Lake and other fresh water sources, drying and storing them for trade and winter use.

The Ute Indians took advantage of the abundance of fish in Utah Lake and other freshwater sources, drying and storing them for trade and winter use. Cultivation of food plants was an early contact adaptation limited to the Pahvant. Ute families lived in brush wickiups and ramadas in the western and southern areas and used hide tepees in the eastern reaches of Ute territory. Men and women kept their hair long or braided, and depending on the region and season wore woven fiber skirts and sandals, rabbit skin robes, and leather shirts, skirts, and leggings. They made baskets and skin bags for carrying their goods, as well as implements of bone, stone, and wood.

Utes acquired horses from the Spanish by 1680. Especially in the eastern areas, horses increased Ute mobility, allowing them to focus on big game mammals and adopt Plains Cultural elements. Horses facilitated Ute raiding and trading, making them respected warriors and important middlemen in the southwestern slave and horse trade. While involved in this trade with Hispanic settlers, Utes remain independent from colonial control. With the exception of the 1776 Dominguez and Escalante expedition, few explorers ventured into Ute territory until the 1810s when a growing number of trappers passed through or established temporary trading posts. Beginning in 1847, Utes experienced the full impact of Euro-American contact with the arrival of Mormon settlers.

The initial Mormon settlement in the Salt Lake Valley occurred in a joint occupancy zone between Utes and Shoshones, and therefore caused little immediate disruption. But as settlers moved south along the Wasatch Front, they began competing with Utes for the scarce resources of these valuable oasis environments. Pushed from the land, Utes led by Wakara retaliated in a series of subsistence raids against isolated Mormon settlements. The Walker War (1853-54) signaled the beginning of Ute subsistence displacement and the “open hand, mailed fist” Indian policy of Brigham Young–feeding when possible, fighting when necessary.

Between 1855 and 1860, Indian Agent Garland Hurt organized Indian farms at Spanish Fork, San Pete, and Corn Creek, hoping to encourage Utes to settle down and farm. Believing that staying in one place meant certain starvation–a belief borne out by consistent crop failures–Utes resisted agrarian settlement and the farms collapsed. In 1861 President Abraham Lincoln set aside the two-million-acre Uintah Valley Reservation for the Ute bands, but Autenquer, a San Pitch war leader, rallied Ute and Southern Paiute resistance to removal in a series of attacks and subsistence raids known as the Black Hawk War (1863-68). By 1869, starving and suffering from Mormon retaliation, Utes turned to civil leader Tabby-to-kwana who led them onto the reservation.

Utes found an inhospitable environment and little prepared for them in the Uintah Basin. Throughout the 1870s these Uintah Utes continued to hunt and gather in the surrounding country while agents cultivated fields in an effort to convince them to settle down. Things became more difficult in 1881 when the federal government forcibly removed the Yamparka and Parianuc (White River) Utes from Colorado to the Uintah Reservation. The following year the government moved the peaceful Taviwac (Uncompahgre) Utes to the adjoining two-million-acre Ouray Reservation.

Removal and consolidation on the Uintah-Ouray Reservation generated a number of problems for and between the Uintah, White River and Uncompahgre bands. Suspicion and jealousy over land and money, diminished opportunities to travel and hunt, and attitudes towards farming divided the bands. These problems were compounded in 1897 and again in 1905 when the government allotted the reservations and opened the remainder for white entry. Each Ute received an 80 to 160 acre plot for farming and access to a communal grazing district. In the end, allotment reduced Ute land holdings by over 85 percent. The construction of expensive irrigation projects did little to improve Ute farming and led to extensive leasing and the alienation of yet more land. Allotment ultimately limited the potential for a successful livestock industry. Short-term resistance to allotment and directed change included the Ute outbreak of 1906-08, during which nearly 400 Utes fled to South Dakota. Longer-term resistance included adoption of the Sun Dance religion and Peyotism–attempts to bind the people together and maintain an Indian identity.

During the early twentieth century, Utes worked or leased their land, performed wage labor for area whites or the Indian agency, or made do on the modest per capita distributions from the tribe. During the 1920s and 1930s they organized a business council composed of elected representatives from each of the three bands and incorporated as the Northern Ute Tribe. Between 1909 and 1965 the tribe was part of several successful federal claims cases, but most of the money judgments went to finance the irrigation project, tribal operations, or was tied up in regulated trusts and individual accounts. In 1954, following a longstanding dispute within the tribe, Northern Utes accepted a division of assets and the termination of federal recognition for people with blood quantums less than one-half. The mixed-bloods organized as the Affiliated Ute Citizens.

In the 1970s and early 1980s, Northern Utes benefited from increased oil and gas development on reservation lands in the form of jobs and severance taxes. The Northern Utes have also been key players in the Central Utah Project, receiving money and stored water in return for the diversion of their watershed runoff into central Utah. Their political clout increased in 1986 when the U.S. Supreme Court upheld the tribe’s right to exercise “legal jurisdiction” over all pre-allotment reservation lands, giving them an undefined amount of legal control over the land and citizens of eastern Utah. In the 1990s, the Northern Ute Tribe boasts nearly 3,000 members and is an increasingly powerful force in local and state politics. They are active in maintaining their language and cultural traditions while improving the economic situation of tribal members through education, tribal enterprises, and planned development.

See: Beverly Beeton, “Teach Them to Till the Soil: An Experiment with Indian Farms, 1850-1862,” American Indian Quarterly, 3 (Winter 1977-78) Donald Callaway, Joel Janetski, and Omer C. Stewart, “Ute,” in Warren L. D’Azevedo, ed., Great Basin, vol. 11 of Handbook of North American Indians, gen. ed. William C. Sturtevant (1986) Howard A. Christy, Howard A., “Open Hand and Mailed Fist: Mormon-Indian Relations in Utah, 1847-52,” Utah Historical Quarterly, 46 (Summer 1978) Fred A. Conetah, A History of the Northern Ute People (1982) Joel C. Janetski, The Ute of Utah Lake, (1991) Joseph G. Jorgensen, The Sun Dance Religion: Power for the Powerless (1972) Anne Milne Smith, comp., Ute Tales (1992) Uintah-Ouray Ute Tribe, Stories of Our Ancestors: A Collection of Northern Ute Indian Tales (1974).


Utah basketball: Poeltl powers Utes past Cal, 76-61 (with video)

Pac-12 basketball • Freshman center leads Utes to victory over California.

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History of Ute AT-76 - History

Nossos editores irão revisar o que você enviou e determinar se o artigo deve ser revisado.

Ute, Numic-speaking group of North American Indians originally living in what is now western Colorado and eastern Utah the latter state is named after them. When the Spanish Father Silvestre Vélez de Escalante traversed their territory in 1776 while seeking a route from Santa Fe (now in New Mexico) to the California missions, the Ute had no horses and lived in small family clusters. At that time there was no clear distinction between the Ute and the Southern Paiute, both of whom spoke Ute.

Like many other desert peoples, the Ute traditionally subsisted by collecting wild foods. After acquiring horses in the early 19th century, the Ute of western Colorado and later of northern Utah organized into loose bands of hunters. The area had been settled by some 30,000 Hispanic mestizos under the aegis of the Spanish colonial government, and soon Ute bands began to prey on the settlers’ livestock. In the southern regions of Utah, Nevada, and California, however, the Ute and Chemehuevi remained afoot there the Ute came to be called Southern Paiute (). After the Indian wars (1864–70) most of the Colorado Ute were settled on a reservation in southwestern Colorado those of Utah were placed on the Uintah and Ouray Reservation. Ute descendants numbered more than 10,300 in the early 21st century.

This article was most recently revised and updated by Amy Tikkanen, Corrections Manager.


Conteúdo

Historically, the term "ute" (short for 'utility vehicle') has been used to describe a 2-door vehicle based on a passenger car chassis, such as the Holden Commodore, Australian Ford Falcon, Chevrolet El Camino and Subaru BRAT. Australian-produced utes were traditionally rear-wheel drive and with the cargo tray integrated with the passenger body (as opposed to a pickup truck, where the cargo tray is separated from the passenger body).

In the 21st century, the term has become more broadly used, for any vehicle with a cargo tray at the rear (which would be called a pickup truck in other countries). [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11]

The concept of a two-door vehicle based on a passenger car chassis with a tray at the rear began in the United States in the 1920s with the roadster utility (also called "roadster pickup" or "light delivery") models. [12] These vehicles were soft-top convertibles, compared with the fixed steel roof used by most utes.

Ford Australia was the first company to produce an Australian Coupe ute, which was released in 1934. [13] This was the result of a 1932 letter from the unnamed wife of a farmer in Australia asking for "a vehicle to go to church in on a Sunday and which can carry our pigs to market on Mondays". [13] In response, Ford designer Lew Bandt designed a two-door body with a tray at the rear for the American Ford Model A chassis, and the model was named "coupe utility". [13] When the Australian version was displayed in the US, Henry Ford nicknamed it the "Kangaroo Chaser". A convertible version, known as the roadster utility was produced in limited numbers by Ford in the 1930s. [14] [15]

In 1951, Holden released a "utility" model, which was based on the 48–215 sedan. With both Ford and Holden now producing utes, this started the long-standing tradition of Australian-designed 2 door vehicles with a tray at the back, based on a passenger-car sedan chassis. [16]

Australia has developed a culture around utes, particularly in rural areas with events known as ute musters. It is common, particularly in rural areas, to customise utes in the "B&S style" with bullbars, spotlights, oversized mudflaps, exhaust pipe flaps and UHF aerials. [17] Since 1998, the "Deni Ute Muster" has been held in the town of Deniliquin, which has become a major attraction for the area. [18] [19]

High performance utes were also sold in Australia, including the FPV F6 and the HSV Maloo. [20] The 2017 HSV GTSR Maloo is powered by a 6.2 L (378 cu in) supercharged V8 engine producing 425 kW (570 hp). [21] [22]

The Australian V8 Utes is a racing series based on lightly modified production Holden and Ford utes.


The Historic Period: Late A.D. 1700s to Mid-1900s

In the late 1700s, Utes occupied eastern Utah, the western two-thirds of Colorado (including the entire Mesa Verde region), and parts of north-central New Mexico. By the end of this period, they were confined to three reservations that represented a very small fraction of traditional Ute territory.

Before being confined to reservations, Ute Indians moved from camp to camp in their seasonal rounds. Here a Ute man stands with his horse in front of a wickiup. Another shelter is in the far left background. (See enlarged photograph.)

In the early part of the Historic period, Ute culture continued to be based on hunting and gathering, with a seasonal round that took them to the mountains in the summer and to low-lying canyons in the winter. They sometimes traveled up to 400 miles between their seasonal camps.

Utes also interacted with Plains Indians along the east side of the Rocky Mountains and as a result were heavily influenced by Plains Indian culture. After acquiring horses from the Spanish, the Utes became mounted raiders, traveling throughout the Rocky Mountains and onto the eastern plains. There they hunted buffalo and acquired other traits common to Plains Indian groups, including the use of teepees and distinctive styles of clothing.

From 1849 to the 1880s, many treaties were signed with the United States government, some of them in response to the discovery of gold and silver on Ute lands. These treaties resulted in the loss of most of the traditional Ute territory—lands which for many generations had sustained the Ute people. In the Mesa Verde region, the end result was the establishment of two reservations: the Southern Ute Reservation in 1877 and the Ute Mountain Ute Reservation in the mid-1890s. In addition, the Uintah-Ouray Reservation was established in east-central Utah, outside the Mesa Verde region. For nomadic people who traveled over a wide territory to obtain food and other necessities, confinement to small tracts of land was an extreme hardship that threatened their very existence.

The Towaoc Indian Agency on the Ute Mountain Ute Reservation, circa 1900–1920. (See enlarged photograph.)

The early twentieth century brought immense changes to the Ute way of life. Confined to reservations, the people gradually made the shift from hunting and gathering to an economy based on agriculture and livestock. As the regional economy began to diversify in the mid-twentieth century, opportunities for the Ute people increased as well, with some individuals working for wages in area businesses.

Visit the Ute Mountain Ute and Southern Ute Web sites for territorial maps and detailed tribal histories.


UTAH SHIPS

U nited States Navy ships are named using rules established by law, custom, and tradition. They may honor states, cities, counties, distinguished people and geographical locations. The following ships were named for the State of Utah, for cities, counties, geographical locations in Utah, and Utahns who served this country with distinction.

USS Bennion (DD 662): The Bennion was named for Mervyn Sharp Bennion who was born in Vernon, Utah, 5 May 1887 he graduated from the U.S. Naval Academy in 1910. As commanding officer of the battleship West Virginia , Captain Bennion was killed in action at Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941. He was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor.

The Bennion, a Navy destroyer, was commissioned on 14 December 1943 and saw extensive action in the Pacific during World War II. She was decommissioned on 20 June 1946.

USS Robert Brazier (DE 345): Robert Brazier was born in Tooele, Utah. He joined the Navy in 1939 and was killed in action 4 June 1942 during the battle of Midway. He was posthumously awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross.

The Robert Brazier , a destroyer escort, was commissioned on 18 May 1944 and performed escort duty for various convoys in the South Pacific until the end of World II. She was decommissioned on 16 September 1946 and used as a target vessel.

USS BRYCE CANYON (AD 36): The Bryce Canyon , a destroyer tender, was named for the National Park in Utah. Commissioned on 15 September 1950, with the mission of providing repair services to destroyers and other combatant ships, she was scrapped on 30 June 1981.

USS Daggett County (LST 689): There is no history for the Daggett County currently available. She would have survived World War II since LSTs (Landing Ship Tanks) were not named during the war but served by hull number designation only, for example, LST-689. It was not until 1955 that LSTs were named for state counties.

USS Escalante (AO 70): The Escalante was commissioned in 1943 and named for the river in Utah. Originally a merchant oiler, she was acquired by the Navy for combat duty during World War II and assigned to the Atlantic Fleet. Prior to the Normandy invasion she was transferred to the Pacific Fleet and participated in action against Luzon, Iwo Jima, Okinawa, and mainland Japan. The Escalante was decommissioned 12 December 1945 and transferred to the Maritime Commission.

USS Escalante River (LSMR 502): LSMRs were medium landing ships converted to fire support ships armed with guns and rocket launchers. There is no history available for the USS Escalante River however, she was most likely a sister ship to the Grand River and Green River .

USS Garfield County (LST 784): The Garfield County was commissioned on 1 September 1944 and participated in the island invasions of Tinian and Okinawa. She was decommissioned in March 1946.

USS GRAND RIVER (LSMR 505): The Grand River was commissioned on 14 June 1945 and joined the Pacific Fleet a few days before the Japanese surrender. She was decommissioned after eleven months service and placed in the Reserve Fleet.

USS GREEN RIVER (LSMR 506): The Green River was a sister ship to the Grand River . Commissioned on 19 June 1945 she was decommissioned after eleven months service and placed in the Reserve Fleet.

USS Iron County (LST 840) : Commissioned 11 December 1944, the Iron County participated in the assault on Okinawa and the occupation of Japan. She was decommissioned on 1 June 1946. Recommissioned during the Korean conflict, she operated between Korea and Japan. She also assisted the French in Indochina during 1954. In 1 July 1958 the Iron County was transferred to the Republic of China (Taiwan) and renamed Chung Fu.

USS Kane County (LST 853) : The USS Kane County was commissioned on 11 December 1944 and joined the Pacific Fleet. She was decommissioned in 1946 and transferred to the Republic of Korea in 1958, serving as the Su Young .

USS Merrill (DE 392) : Howard Deel Merrill was born 16 December 1917 in Provo, Utah. He graduated from the Naval Academy in 1940 and reported to his first duty station, the USS Arizona , where he was killed on 7 December 1941 as a result of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. The USS Merrill was commissioned on 17 November 1943 and performed escort duty for fifteen convoy crossings of the Atlantic. Transferred to the Pacific Fleet, she was en route to Pearl Harbor when World War II ended. Soon afterward she was decommissioned and transferred to the Atlantic Reserve Fleet.

USS Millard County (LST 987): The Millard County was commissioned on 19 April 1944 and spent her first year of service as an Atlantic Fleet training ship. In 1945 she was transferred to the Pacific Fleet, operating in the South Pacific and Japanese waters in support of the occupation of Japan. The Millard County was decommissioned in 1946 and sold to the West German Navy in 1961.

USS Morgan County (LST 1048) : The Morgan County was commissioned on 28 March 1945. She operated in the Marshall Islands in support of various base establishments by the Third Marine Division. The Morgan County was turned over to the Army after World War II ended and assisted in the occupation of Japan.

During the Korean conflict she was given back to the Navy for service along the Korean coast. She participated in the invasion of Inchon and was subsequently decommissioned on 10 May 1956.

USS Navajo : The name Navajo has been given to four different ships in honor of the Indian tribe residing in the States of Utah, Arizona, and New Mexico. Three of these ships were ocean going tugs. The first was commissioned in 1907, assigned to Pearl Harbor, and decommissioned in 1924. The second (AT 64) saw service in World War II in the South Pacific and was sunk due to enemy action. The third Navajo (ATA 211) was commissioned in 1945, serving between San Diego and Pearl Harbor, and was decommissioned in 1962. The other Navajo was a motor patrol boat (SP298), commissioned in 1917, that spent her entire career on the east coast patrolling harbor entrances and submarine nets during World War I. She was decommissioned and sold on 1 November 1919.

USS Melvin R. Nawman (DE 416): Melvin Nawman was a graduate of the University of Utah. He was commissioned a Second Lieutenant in the Marine Corps seeing action as a pilot during the struggle for Guadalcanal. He died three days after the initial Guadalcanal assault, on a volunteer mission, attempting to stop the Japanese from landing additional reinforcements.

The Nawman was commissioned on 16 May 1944 and assigned destroyer escort duties during the Marshall Island invasion. Decommissioned after the war she was recommissioned during the Korean conflict to serve as a training ship for midshipman. USS Nawman was decommissioned a second time in August 1960.

USS Ogden (PF 39): One of two ships named for the city of Ogden, Utah. The Ogden (PF 39) was commissioned on 10 December 1943. Her primary mission, as a patrol frigate, was to escort convoys during the latter years of World War II. The Ogden was decommission in July 1945 and transferred to the Russian Navy under the lend-lease program. She was returned to the United States and then given to the Japanese in January 1953 to serve as the Kusu .

USS Ogden (LPD 5): An all-purpose amphibious warfare ship combining the functions of an attack transport and attack cargo ship, the second Ogden is classified as an Amphibious Transport Dock. Commissioned on June 1964, she served during the Vietnam conflict and is still on duty.

USS PAIUTE (ATF 159): Named for the Paiute Indian tribe of southwestern Utah, she was commissioned 17 August 1945. Her major duties included salvage, towing and logistics throughout the North Atlantic. The Paiute participated in the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962 and in the Dominican Republic in 1965. She was also used in the recovery of Gemini 6 and 7 and Apollo 7 and 9 spacecraft. The Paiute was transferred to the Naval Reserve Force 1 February 1977.

USS Provo (AG 173): Named for the city of Provo, Utah, she was a special projects ship built in 1945 by the Maritime Administration as the Drew Victory . She was later renamed California and Utah during her civilian career until she was acquired by the Navy in 1963 and renamed Provo . During the 1970s the Provo was a point to point cargo carrier delivering cargo to Okinawa and Vietnam.

The Provo Victory (AK 228): The "Victory" was added to many commercial ships acquired by the Navy during World War II. The Provo Victory was commissioned on 18 October 1944 and served in the South Pacific as a cargo carrier. On 10 April 1946 she was decommissioned and returned to the War Shipping Administration.

USS Richfield (AK 253): Originally named the Owensboro Victory , she delivered cargo and passengers to occupied Japan under the operation of Coastwise Lines, a commercial shipping company. Acquired by the Army and renamed the Private Joe E. Mann , she was returned to the Maritime Commission and then transferred to the Navy. Designated the USS Richfield in honor of the central Utah city, she was placed under the operation of the Military Sea Transportation Service as a cargo vessel. In 1968 she was transferred to the National Defense Reserve Fleet.

USS Salt Lake City (AC 25): One of two vessels named for Utah's capital city, this one, a heavy cruiser, was commissioned on 11 December 1929. During the attack on Pearl Harbor, the Salt Lake City was returning from Wake Island escorting the carrier Enterprise . In the months that followed, the Salt Lake City saw action off the Marcus and Santa Cruz Islands, the Solomons, the Aleutians, and other major campaigns in the South Pacific. At the close of World War II, the Salt Lake City was deactivated and used as a test vessel for the post-war atomic bomb tests. After surviving two atomic blasts, she was sunk as a target off the coast of southern California on 25 May 25 1948.

USS Salt Lake City (SSN 716): The second Naval vessel to honor this city was commissioned on 12 May 1984. As one of the Navy's newest nuclear powered submarines, her history is yet to be written.

USS Santaquin (YTB 824): Named for a chief of the Ute tribe, and a town in Utah, the Santaquin is a larger tug commissioned in 1973 and is still in service.

USS Sevier (APA 233): Named for the county in Utah, the Sevier was commissioned on 5 December 1944 as an Attack Personnel Transport ship tasked with delivering combat troops throughout the Pacific. She participated in the occupation of Japan and operation "Magic Carpet" bringing troops back to the United States. The Sevier was decommissioned on 30 April 1947.

USS Summit County (LST 1146): The Summit County was commissioned on 30 May 1945 and began her long career transporting construction supplies for the Seabees to various islands throughout the Pacific. After World War II ended the Summit County spent the next year delivery supplies to the Distant Early Warning (DEW) stations in Alaska. She also saw action during the Korean and Vietnam conflicts. After twenty years of service she was decommissioned.

USS Swenson (DD 729): Lyman Swenson was born in Pleasant Grove, Utah and graduated from the Naval Academy in 1916. He was killed onboard the USS Juneau during the battle for Guadalcanal.

The USS Swenson , a destroyer, was commissioned in 1944 and involved in battles at Formosa, Okinawa, and the islands of Japan. After World War II, she patrolled the waters off Korea participating in the Inchon landings and various shore bombardment missions. The Swenson saw duty during the Vietnam conflict and was decommissioned in 1969.

USS Tooele (PC 572): There is no history available for the patrol craft USS Tooele .

USS Utah (BB31/AG16): The battleship Utah was commissioned on 31 August 1911. During World War I she saw duty, primarily in Ireland, protecting convoy approaches to the British Isles. After World War I, battleship design progressed so rapidly that Utah became obsolete. She was one of a few battleships to survive after the Washington Treaty of 1922. This treaty placed total tonnage limitations on the signing countries. For the next nine years Utah served as the flagship for various naval squadrons and diplomatic missions.

The London Treaty of 1931 resulted in further naval limitations and Utah was redesignated as a target ship (AG 16). As the AG 16 she was outfitted with radio control devices which permitted control of the ship's engines and helm. The remote control of this giant ship was considered a major technological advance that, in a later generation, would be used in space operation at a latter time.

On Sunday, 7 December 1941, the Utah was moored at Pearl Harbor. She was torpedoed and sunk with the loss of six officers and fifty-two men. Her name was stricken from the list of Navy ships on 13 November 1944. She can still be seen at Pearl Harbor.

USS Ute (ATF 76): There is currently no history available for the seagoing tug USS Ute . She was named for the Ute Indian tribe and was transferred to the U.S. Coast Guard on 30 September 1980.

USS Wasatch (AGC 9): The Wasatch , named for the mountain range in Utah, was originally a merchant ship the SS Fleetwing . She was procured by the Navy Department and commissioned in 1944 as an amphibious force flagship. A communication nerve center for all amphibious assaults, she participated in the assaults on New Guinea, Borneo, and the Philippines. The Wasatch was decommissioned on 30 August 1946.

USS White River (LSMR 536): There is no history available for the USS White River.

Isenção de responsabilidade: as informações neste site foram convertidas de um livro de capa dura publicado pela University of Utah Press em 1994.

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Twentieth Century

In 1911 one of the last pieces of land taken from the Ute people was the area that now makes up Mesa Verde National Park. The federal government acquired more than 52,000 acres of land for the park in 1911, in exchange for some acreage on the northern boundary of the Ute Mountain Ute Reservation.

By the 1930s, government policies began shifting away from the internal colonialism of the nineteenth century and early twentieth. In 1934 the Wheeler-Howard Act, also known as the Indian Reorganization Act or the Indian New Deal, provided for self-government by Indian tribes through tribal councils composed of elected members and a chairman. Until 1970 tribal constitutions and bylaws required the approval of the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), federal money provided to tribes was managed by the BIA, and tribal budgets were subject to approval by the secretary of the interior. In 1970, however, President Richard M. Nixon publicly proclaimed a new era in Indian affairs—one of true Indian self-determination.

The Ute people did not hesitate to establish themselves as self-governing sovereign nations. Indeed, in 1936, well before Nixon’s proclamation of Indian self-determination, the Southern Ute Tribe adopted a constitution and established a tribal council. The Ute Mountain Ute followed suit in 1940. As a result of these newly formed and recognized governments petitioning Washington, orders of restoration returned 222,000 acres to the Southern Utes in 1937 and 30,000 acres to the Ute Mountain Ute Tribe in 1938.


History of Ute AT-76 - History

There are contesting claims as to the origin of the first ‘ute’ and some people reckon it’s an Aussie invention.

In 1933, a Gippsland farmer’s wife wrote a letter to Ford Australia, asking: “Can you build me a vehicle that we can use to go to church on Sunday, without getting wet, and that my husband can use to take the pigs to market on Monday?”

Lew Bandt, who was then a young designer at Ford’s
Geelong plant, modified a 1933 coupe, by incorporating tub bodywork in the back and strengthening the chassis so that it could carry a load. The prototype was approved and the Ford Australia ute went into production in 1934 as the Model 40-A Light Delivery.

But was this really the world’s first ute?

It depends entirely on how you define the word ‘utility’. Wikipedia defines ‘ute’ as: “an abbreviation for ‘utility’ or ‘coupe utility’ It’s a term used in Australia and New Zealand to describe vehicles with a tray behind the passenger compartment”.

It’s widely accepted that the original ‘utility’ was distinguished from a light truck by the fact that its bodywork continued in an unbroken line, aft from the cabin to the tail. A light truck had its cab and cargo bodywork separate.

Most modern utes aren’t ‘classic utes’ because the rear tub is separate from the cab structure. That’s a necessary separation in the case of a 4WD ute, to prevent stress cracking of the rear bodywork as the chassis flexes.

A second and very important demarcation is the difference between a 1920s and 1930s ‘utility’ and ‘coupe utility’. A ‘utility’ was derived from a passenger car with a soft-top, convertible roof and a ‘coupe utility’ was derived from a hard-roof sedan.

Ford Australia’s claim that Lew Bandt’s design was the world’s first ute is based on the fact that it was certainly North America or Australia’s first ‘coupe utility’. All the utilities that preceded it in these markets were soft-top utes.

But one very early ute wasn’t American at all: in 1927, across the Atlantic, a new company called Volvo (Latin for ‘I roll’) produced its first cars and
pickups, with open and closed cabins. However, only 27 closed-cabin pickups were produced before the company upscaled the OV4 to light truck size, moving it out of the ute category.

If 27 production vehicles is a reasonable amount then Volvo was clearly the world’s first ‘coupe utility’ maker. The photos show an open-cabin ute, because we can’t locate a pic of the closed-cabin (coupe) version.

Lew Brandt’s creation

For the following information we’re indebted to Robert Ryan, who owns a very rare, genuine Model 40-A coupe utility.

Interestingly, Robert told us that the well known Lew Bandt (Rego UTE 001) ute replica, produced in 1975, was built from a cut down 1933 Ford sedan to a ute, procured from a farmer in Bannockburn, Victoria. The reason was that Lew could not find a genuine Ford Coupe Utility. After Lew’s death in 1987 in this vehicle, it was rebuilt by members of the Early Ford V8 Club Victoria as a 1934 model, by changing the grille and bonnet, but still using the 1933 sedan cabin section.

This patchwork replica has received more adulation than genuine vehicles: in 1997 Australia Post issued a 45 cent stamp and poster card depicting the replica Bandt Coupe Utility Classic Carlectables released a 1/43 scale model of the non-genuine Ford Coupe Utility and in 2017 Ford Australia, in collaboration with the Royal Australian Mint, released an uncirculated coin of the non-genuine Ford Coupe Utility.

Light Delivery was the Ford Australia title for both Roadster (soft top) and Coupe Utilities in the years 1933-1934.

Of the total 1390 produced in Geelong, 862 were Roadster Utilities and only 528 were Coupe Utilities.

Incidentally, the parallel production pattern of hard and soft tops continued, as this photo of a 1936 Roadster Ute shows.

Other pre-1930s utes

The earliest ute may have well preceded these mass production examples by more than 30 years. On the jacket of his wonderful Australian automotive history book, ‘From Horse to Horsepower’, S A Cheney is photographed sitting at the tiller steering of a 1903 Oldsmobile, which is fitted with an integrated
tub body that is distinctly ‘ute’.

The post-Dodge-Brothers company had a soft-top Dodge pickup in its model line-up in 1924. (John and Horace Dodge both died within a year of each other, in 1920 and their widows were then running the company that was eventually sold to Chrysler in 1928.)

An excellent example of the 1924 Dodge ute is owned by Bruce Church of Broken Hill. Bruce’s ute began life as a touring car with its original owners, the Parham family, but was retro-fitted with replica ute bodywork in 1947, incorporating the original rear mudguards.

The ute spent most of its life as a working vehicle, but has had long rest periods sitting on blocks. Bruce Church says the Dodge is still in original, unrestored condition.

In 1927 Chevrolet also produced a soft-top ute, known as the National Roadster Utility.

The claims for ‘first ute’ status will doubtless continue, but that of ‘most loved’ Aussie ute undoubtedly goes to the 1951 Holden coupé utility that was derived from the 1948-year, 48-215 four door sedan. The first Holden ute (nicknamed FX) was a great performer and was cheaper than any of its rivals. The waiting list was around 70,000 in its first year.

Ute trends

Utes have never achieved cult status in urbanised Europe, where the van is king, but in most other countries – particularly agri-based ones – utes are vital transport. The US dominates the ute world in terms of numbers and, until recently, the Ford F-Series pickup was the biggest-selling vehicle model on earth, but with poor export sales.

The laurels for ute numbers per capita go to Thailand, where some 420,000 new utes are sold each year. This healthy market, combined with world-class vehicle manufacturing capability and the fact that Thailand has heavy import duties on any vehicles that aren’t locally produced, has seen most Japanese-brand
utes being manufactured in Thailand since the 1990s.

A strange Thai law that demands leaf springs on ute rear axles is slowing Japanese-brand ute development.

India and China are ramping up ute production and will threaten traditional makers in the next few years.


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