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Stonewall Jackson SSBN-634 - História

Stonewall Jackson SSBN-634 - História


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Stonewall Jackson
(SSBN-634: dp. 7.300 (surf.), 8.250 (subm.); 1. 425 '; b. 33'; dr. 32 '; s. 20+ k .; cpl. 110; a. 16 Polaris névoa , 4 21 "tt .; cl. James Madison)

Stonewall Jackson (SSBN-634) foi estabelecido no Dia da Independência de 1962 em Vallejo, Califórnia, pelo Estaleiro Naval de Mare Island, lançado em 30 de novembro de 1963; patrocinado pela Srta. Julia Christian McAfee; e comissionado em 26 de agosto de 1964, Comdr. J. H. Nicholson e Comdr. R. A. Frost comandando as tripulações Blue e Gold, respectivamente.

Stonewall Jackson partiu de Vallejo em 3 de setembro para seu cruzeiro de shakedown para Cape Kennedy, Flórida. A tripulação Blue completou o treinamento com um disparo de míssil bem-sucedido em 2 de dezembro e foi substituída pela tripulação Gold. Após o lançamento bem-sucedido do míssil da tripulação Gold em 16 de dezembro, Stonewall Jackson voltou ao Oceano Pacífico para completar as operações de shakedown. O submarino de mísseis balísticos da frota (FBM) entrou em disponibilidade após o shakedown em 13 de fevereiro de 1965, então fez os preparativos finais em Bangor, Wash., Para o movimento no exterior. Em abril, ela iniciou sua primeira patrulha de dissuasão estratégica.

Em junho de 1965, a tripulação Gold substituiu a tripulação Blue no porto de Apra, Guam, e durante os cinco anos seguintes, o submarino conduziu patrulhas de dissuasão naquele porto. Na primavera de 1970, Stonewall Jackson foi transferido para a Frota do Atlântico. Em 23 de abril, ela partiu de Pearl Harbor para realizar uma operação especial, antes de seguir para o Canal do Panamá.

Ela transitou pelo canal em 7 de maio e mudou o controle operacional da Flotilha Submarina (SubFlot) 5 para o SubFlot 6, oficialmente ingressando na Frota do Atlântico. Oito dias depois, ela se mudou para New London, Connecticut.

Ela passou a segunda metade de maio fazendo manutenção em New London; em seguida, rumou para o sul em 1º de junho. O submarino parou na Academia Naval de 7 a 10 de junho para viagens de doutrinação de aspirantes; em seguida, embarcar para operações especiais. Stonewall Jackson entrou em Charleston para descarregar mísseis durante a primeira semana de julho; então traçou um curso para New London, chegando no dia 10. Em 15 de julho, ela entrou no estaleiro da General Dynamics Electric Boat Division em Groton, Connecticut, para conversão para o sistema de mísseis Poseidon (C-3). A instalação do novo sistema de mísseis foi concluída em 29 de outubro de 1971, quando a tripulação do Blue começou os preparativos para embarcar. Entre outubro de 1971 e março de 1972, as tripulações do Blue e do Gold realizaram seus cruzeiros de shakedown na costa sudeste dos Estados Unidos. Ela voltou a Groton em 4 de março e, em 8 de março, começou a disponibilidade pós-shakedown no estaleiro General Dynamics.

Em 7 de abril, ela partiu para Charleston para um carregamento de míssil em preparação para seu primeiro cruzeiro de dissuasão pelo Atlântico pós-conversão. Desde então, ela tem operado a partir da base avançada em Holy Loch, Escócia, alternando as tripulações Blue e Gold em patrulhas de dissuasão.


USS Stonewall Jackson SSBN 634 & # 8211 Inabalável Coragem

Hoje é 2 de julho. Em 1863, uma grande batalha dentro e ao redor de uma pequena cidade chamada Gettysburg estava em seu segundo dia. Esta não é uma história sobre a batalha, mas o segundo dia foi um dia em que Robert E. Lee certamente poderia ter usado os talentos de Stonewall Jackson. Após dois dias de combates sangrentos, Lee se viu em uma posição que certamente significaria sucesso ou fracasso no andamento da guerra. A estratégia da batalha ainda está sendo discutida e discutida cerca de cento e cinquenta anos após o fim da guerra. Mas muitos acham que Lee foi prejudicado sem seu subordinado mais influente, que morrera poucos meses antes.

Houve dois dias de combates brutais em Gettysburg. Lee e seus subordinados várias vezes chegaram muito perto de quebrar as linhas do sindicato. Felizmente para a União, ele falhou. As baixas foram muito altas em ambos os lados, cada um perdendo cerca de 10.000 homens cada. Na noite do dia 2, um abalado General Meade convocou uma reunião para obter um consenso com os comandantes de seu corpo sobre se eles deveriam permanecer em Gettysburg e lutar, ou se deveriam se retirar. Foi uma decisão unânime. Eles ficariam e lutariam. Essa decisão mudaria o curso da história no dia seguinte.

USS Stonewall Jackson (SSBN-634), um submarino de mísseis balísticos da classe James Madison, foi o terceiro navio da Marinha dos Estados Unidos a ser nomeado em homenagem ao General do Exército dos Estados Confederados Thomas J. & # 8220Stonewall & # 8221 Jackson (1824-1863) .É uma coisa notável que o General obteve um apoio tão forte do Norte e do Sul muito depois que a guerra acabou. Seu caráter e heroísmo foram notáveis.

Do livro do almirante Rickover, “Eminent Americans”:

USS STONEWALL JACKSON (SSBN 634)

NOMEADO POR Thomas Jonathan Jackson, conhecido na história como “Stonewall” Jackson, general confederado e estrategista e um dos heróis mais ilustres do sul.

Terceiro de quatro filhos, ele nasceu em Clarksburg, no que hoje é West Virginia, em 21 de janeiro de 1824. Quando Thomas tinha 2 anos, seu pai morreu deixando a família sem um tostão. Chamado cedo para ajudar a sustentar sua mãe, ele teve poucas oportunidades de educação. Sua mãe morreu 5 anos depois e ele foi criado por uma sucessão de parentes, terminando como pupilo de seu tio. Ainda adolescente, trabalhou como mestre-escola e policial. Em 1842, aos 18 anos, foi nomeado para os Estados Unidos. Academia Militar.

Um menino pobre de uma cidade rural, Jackson se viu em desvantagem ao competir contra seus colegas, muitos dos quais haviam se preparado para a Academia em escolas melhores. Por meio de grande esforço e muito estudo, ele passou da 51ª posição em sua classe no final do primeiro ano para a 17ª na formatura.

Quando Jackson e seus colegas receberam suas comissões em junho de 1846, os Estados Unidos estavam em guerra com o México, e o jovem tenente de artilharia foi imediatamente enviado para se juntar à frente. Ele participou da campanha contra a Cidade do México e se destacou na Batalha de Chapultepec. Após breves missões em guarnições no Leste e na Flórida, ele renunciou ao exército para se tornar Professor de Filosofia Natural e Experimental e Táticas de Artilharia no Instituto Militar da Virgínia em Lexington, Virgínia. Na VMI, Jackson era um professor indiferente e seu excentricidades marcantes faziam dele o alvo de muitas piadas de estudantes. Tímido e com poucos amigos íntimos, ele encontrou conforto na religião, que se tornou uma espécie de obsessão durante seus anos em Lexington. Um membro dedicado e trabalhador da Igreja Presbiteriana, ele regularmente doava um décimo de sua renda para a igreja e estabeleceu às suas próprias custas uma escola dominical gratuita para os filhos de escravos negros e libertos, na qual ele servia como o professor principal.

A eleição de Lincoln e as subsequentes crises de secessão apresentaram a Jackson um dilema cruel. Como seu colega da Virgínia, Robert E. Lee, ele se opôs à secessão e acreditava que: “É melhor para o Sul lutar por seus direitos na União do que fora dela”. Depois de Fort Sumter, ele sentiu que não tinha escolha a não ser permanecer leal ao seu estado natal.

Com a eclosão da guerra, Jackson foi nomeado coronel dos Voluntários da Virgínia. Sua primeira missão foi comandar o arsenal em Harpers Ferry, o posto avançado ao norte do Vale do Shenandoah, que mais tarde seria o cenário de suas famosas façanhas. Na Batalha de Bull Run em 21 de julho de 1861, Jackson, agora um general de brigada, comandou a 1ª Brigada do Exército do Shenandoah do General Joseph E. Johnston. No auge da batalha, quando os confederados estavam começando a ceder sob o peso do ataque da União, um general brigadeiro vizinho, Bee, cavalgou até Jackson com o grito, “Eles estão nos batendo de volta!” "Então, senhor", veio a resposta rápida, "vamos dar-lhes a baioneta!" Incentivado por esta resposta, Bee reuniu suas próprias tropas em retirada e gritou: "Olha, lá está Jackson parado como uma parede de pedra!" O ataque da União foi repelido e Jackson adquiriu seu famoso apelido de “Stonewall”.…

Em abril de 1863, um novo exército invasor federal de mais de 120.000 sob o comando do general Joseph Hooker avançou contra as posições confederadas em Rappahannock perto de Chancellorsville, Va. Hooker planejou usar sua força superior, que superava Lee em quase dois para um, para envolver o Flanco esquerdo confederado. Jackson e Lee discutiram sobre uma estratégia. Eles decidiram, em uma das apostas mais ousadas da guerra, enviar o grosso do Exército Confederado sob o comando de Jackson em um amplo giro em torno da flecha direita da União, enquanto Lee, com apenas 14.000 homens, ficaria na frente.

Na escuridão da madrugada, os homens de Jackson partiram para outra das lendárias marchas forçadas. Doze horas depois, ao pôr do sol, eles estavam em posição perpendicular e se preparando para atacar a linha da União, que ainda desconhecia sua presença.

O ataque foi devastador. Toda a ala direita do Exército da União estava desmoralizada e derrotada. Na escuridão crescente, Jackson foi gravemente ferido pelo fogo de seus próprios homens. Ele morreu uma semana depois.

Seu corpo estava na Câmara dos Representantes em Richmond, não muito longe do local onde, 2 anos antes, um legislador intrigado havia perguntado "Quem é este Major Jackson?" quando seu nome foi indicado para uma comissão dos Voluntários da Virgínia. Ele foi enterrado em um cemitério simples perto de Lexington, Va., Onde passou seus anos mais felizes.

A morte de Jackson foi um golpe fatal para a Confederação. O Exército da Virgínia do Norte nunca mais foi o mesmo instrumento flexível de quando ele estava vivo, nunca mais Lee teve um subordinado que imediatamente entendeu o que estava em sua mente e executou brilhantemente seu plano.

Jackson era o tenente ideal, nunca chamado para comandar uma grande força de forma independente. Um estrategista e líder de primeira ordem, sua campanha do Vale permanece um clássico do que uma pequena força pode realizar quando liderada por um oficial resoluto que

Lee escreveu a Jackson depois de saber de seus ferimentos, declarando: & # 8220Posso ter dirigido os eventos, eu teria escolhido para o bem do país ser incapacitado em seu lugar. & # 8221 Jackson morreu de complicações de pneumonia em 10 de maio, 1863, oito dias depois de ser baleado. Em seu leito de morte, embora tenha se tornado mais fraco, ele permaneceu espiritualmente forte, dizendo no final: & # 8220É o dia do Senhor & # 8217, meu desejo foi realizado. Sempre desejei morrer no domingo. & # 8221

O barco:

Classe e tipo: submarino da classe James Madison

Deslocamento: 7.300 toneladas longas (7.417 t) à superfície

8.250 toneladas longas (8.382 t) submerso

Potência instalada: reator S5W

Propulsão: 2 × turbinas a vapor com engrenagem, um eixo de 15.000 shp (11.185 kW)

Velocidade: Mais de 20 nós (37 km / h 23 mph)

Profundidade de teste: 1.300 pés (400 m)

Complemento: Duas tripulações (Azul e Ouro) de 13 oficiais e 130 homens alistados cada

Armamento: tubos de mísseis balísticos de 16 ×

Tubos de torpedo 4 × 21 pol. (533 mm) para a frente

Stonewall Jackson (SSBN-634) foi colocado em Dia da Independência de 1962 em Vallejo, Califórnia, pelo Mare Island Naval Shipyard lançado em 30 de novembro de 1963, patrocinado pela Srta. Julia Christian McAfee e comissionado em 26 de agosto de 1964, Comdr. J. H. Nicholson e Comdr. R. A. Frost comandando as tripulações Blue e Gold, respectivamente.

Stonewall Jackson partiu de Vallejo em 3 de setembro para seu cruzeiro de shakedown para Cape Kennedy, Flórida. A tripulação Blue completou o treinamento com um disparo de míssil bem sucedido em 2 de dezembro e foi substituída pela tripulação Gold. Após o lançamento bem-sucedido do míssil da tripulação Gold & # 8217s em 16 de dezembro, Stonewall Jackson voltou ao Oceano Pacífico para completar as operações de destruição. O submarino de mísseis balísticos da frota (FBM) entrou em disponibilidade após o shakedown em 13 de fevereiro de 1965, então fez os preparativos finais em Bangor, Wash., Para o movimento no exterior. Em abril, ela começou sua primeira patrulha de dissuasão estratégica.

Em junho de 1965, a tripulação Gold substituiu a tripulação Blue no porto de Apra, Guam, e durante os cinco anos seguintes, o submarino conduziu patrulhas de dissuasão naquele porto. Na primavera de 1970, Stonewall Jackson foi transferido para a Frota do Atlântico. Em 23 de abril, ela partiu de Pearl Harbor para realizar uma operação especial, antes de seguir para o Canal do Panamá.

Ela transitou pelo canal em 7 de maio e mudou o controle operacional da Flotilha Submarina (SubPlot) 5 para o SubPlot 6, ingressando oficialmente na Frota do Atlântico. Oito dias depois, ela mudou-se para New London, Connecticut.

Ela passou a segunda metade de maio em manutenção em New London, em seguida, rumou para o sul em 1 ° de junho. O submarino parou na Academia Naval de 7 a 10 de junho para viagens de doutrinação de aspirantes e, em seguida, foi lançado ao mar para operações especiais. Stonewall Jackson entrou em Charleston para descarregar mísseis durante a primeira semana de julho e, em seguida, traçou um curso para New London, chegando no dia 10. Em 15 de julho, ela entrou no estaleiro da General Dynamics Electric Boat Division em Groton, Connecticut, para conversão para o sistema de mísseis Poseidon (C-3). A instalação do novo sistema de mísseis foi concluída em 29 de outubro de 1971, quando a tripulação do Blue começou os preparativos para embarcar. Entre outubro de 1971 e março de 1972, as tripulações do Blue e do Gold realizaram seus cruzeiros de shakedown na costa sudeste dos Estados Unidos. Ela voltou a Groton em 4 de março e, em 8 de março, começou a disponibilidade pós-shakedown no estaleiro General Dynamics.

Em 7 de abril, ela partiu para Charleston para um carregamento de míssil em preparação para seu primeiro cruzeiro de dissuasão pelo Atlântico pós-conversão. Desde então, ela tem operado a partir da base avançada em Holy Loch, Escócia, alternando as tripulações Blue e Gold em patrulhas de dissuasão.

Stonewall Jackson foi baseado em Holy Loch, Escócia, para tarefas de patrulha até meados de 1978. Ela voltou aos Estados Unidos para uma ampla revisão em Portsmouth, New Hampshire Shipyard e foi equipada com o sistema de mísseis Trident C-4 no lado do cais de Port Canaveral, Flórida, no final de 1988. 1988-1990 em Charleston, SC, foi onde ela desdobrou para patrulhas. Ela então operou na Base Naval Submarine Kings Bay, Geórgia, até sua patrulha final em 1994.

Descomissionamento e descarte

Stonewall Jackson foi desativado em 9 de fevereiro de 1995 e simultaneamente eliminado do Registro de Navios Navais. Seu desmantelamento por meio do Programa de Reciclagem de Navios com Energia Nuclear e Submarino em Bremerton, Washington, foi concluído em 13 de outubro de 1995.


Stonewall Jackson partiu de Vallejo em 3 de setembro de 1964 para seu cruzeiro de shakedown em Cape Kennedy, Flórida. O Blue Crew completou o treinamento com um míssil balístico Polaris disparando em 2 de dezembro de 1964 e foi substituído pelo Gold Crew. Após o lançamento bem-sucedido do míssil Polaris da Gold Crew em 16 de dezembro de 1964, Stonewall Jackson voltou ao Oceano Pacífico para completar as operações de shakedown. Ela começou as alterações e reparos pós-redução em 13 de fevereiro de 1965, depois fez os preparativos finais em Bangor, Washington, para uma implantação no exterior. Em abril de 1965, ela iniciou sua primeira patrulha de dissuasão estratégica.

Em junho de 1965, a Gold Crew substituiu a Blue Crew em Apra Harbor, Guam. Pelos próximos cinco anos Stonewall Jackson conduziu patrulhas de dissuasão do Porto de Apra.

Na primavera de 1970, Stonewall Jackson foi transferido para a Frota do Atlântico dos Estados Unidos. Em 23 de abril de 1970, ela partiu de Pearl Harbor, no Havaí, para realizar uma operação especial, antes de seguir para o Canal do Panamá. Ela transitou pelo canal em 7 de maio de 1970 e mudou o controle operacional da Flotilha Submarina 5 para a Flotilha Submarina 6, juntando-se oficialmente à Frota do Atlântico. Em 15 de maio de 1970, ela se mudou para New London, Connecticut.

Stonewall Jackson passou a segunda metade de maio de 1970 em manutenção em New London, em seguida, rumou para o sul em 1 de junho de 1970. Ela parou na Academia Naval dos Estados Unidos em Annapolis, Maryland, de 7 de junho a 10 de junho de 1970 para viagens de doutrinação de aspirantes, depois foi para o mar para operações especiais. Ela entrou em Charleston, Carolina do Sul, para descarregar mísseis balísticos durante a primeira semana de julho de 1970, em seguida, traçou um curso para New London, chegando em 10 de julho de 1970. Em 15 de julho, ela entrou no estaleiro da Divisão de Barcos Elétricos da General Dynamics em Groton, Connecticut, para conversão para transportar o sistema de mísseis balísticos Poseidon C-3.

A instalação do novo sistema de mísseis foi concluída em 29 de outubro de 1971, quando o Blue Crew começou os preparativos para colocar no mar. Entre outubro de 1971 e março de 1972, tanto o Blue Crew quanto o Gold Crew realizaram seus cruzeiros de shakedown na costa sudeste dos Estados Unidos. Stonewall Jackson retornou a Groton em 4 de março de 1971 e, em 8 de março, iniciou os reparos e alterações pós-shakedown no estaleiro General Dynamics.

Em 7 de abril de 1971, Stonewall Jackson partiu para Charleston para carregamento de mísseis balísticos em preparação para sua primeira pós-conversão e primeira patrulha de dissuasão do Atlântico.

Stonewall Jackson foi baseado em Holy Loch, Escócia, para tarefas de patrulha até meados de 1978. Ela voltou aos Estados Unidos para uma ampla revisão em Portsmouth, New Hampshire Shipyard e foi equipada com o sistema de mísseis Trident C-4 no lado do cais de Port Canaveral, Flórida, no final de 1988. 1988-1990 em Charleston, SC, foi onde ela desdobrou para patrulhas. Ela então operou fora da Base Naval Submarine Kings Bay, Geórgia, até sua patrulha final em 1994. & # 911 & # 93


USS Stonewall Jackson (SSBN 634)

O USS STONEWALL JACKSON foi o 17º submarino de mísseis balísticos da classe LAFAYETTE com propulsão nuclear. Descomissionado e retirado da lista da Marinha em 9 de fevereiro de 1995, o STONEWALL JACKSON posteriormente entrou no Programa de Reciclagem de Navios Nucleares e Submarinos da Marinha em Bremerton, Washington. A reciclagem foi concluída em 13 de outubro de 1995.

Características gerais: Concedido: 21 de julho de 1961
Quilha colocada: 4 de julho de 1962
Lançado: 30 de novembro de 1963
Comissionado: 26 de agosto de 1964
Desativado: 9 de fevereiro de 1995
Construtor: Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo, Califórnia.
Sistema de propulsão: um reator nuclear S5W
Hélices: um
Comprimento: 425 pés (129,6 metros)
Feixe: 33 pés (10 metros)
Calado: 31,5 pés (9,6 metros)
Deslocamento: Superfície: aprox. 7.250 toneladas Submerso: aprox. 8.250 toneladas
Velocidade: À superfície: 16 - 20 nós Submerso: 22 - 25 nós
Armamento: 16 tubos verticais para mísseis Polaris ou Poseidon, quatro tubos de torpedo de 21 "para torpedos Mk-48, torpedos Mk-14/16, torpedos Mk-37 e torpedos nucleares Mk-45
Tripulação: 13 Oficiais e 130 Alistados (duas tripulações)

Esta seção contém os nomes dos marinheiros que serviram a bordo do USS STONEWALL JACKSON. Não é uma lista oficial, mas contém os nomes dos marinheiros que enviaram suas informações.

Thomas Jonathan Jackson, nascido em Clarksburg, Va., (Agora em W. Va.) Em 1824, ficou órfão muito jovem, mas, por pura determinação, adquiriu uma educação básica e ganhou uma nomeação para a Academia Militar dos Estados Unidos em Ponto oeste. Ele se formou em 1846 e se saiu tão bem durante a Guerra do México que foi promovido ao posto de major em 18 meses. Ele renunciou ao Exército em 1852 e tornou-se professor de tática de artilharia e filosofia natural (física) no Instituto Militar da Virgínia.

No início da Guerra Civil, Jackson foi nomeado coronel das tropas da Virgínia e colocado no comando de Harper's Ferry. Ele foi promovido a brigadeiro-general em 17 de junho de 1861 e rapidamente levou seu comando ao pico de eficiência. Na Primeira Batalha de Manassas, quando um assalto federal se estilhaçou contra suas tropas, ele se tornou "Stonewall" Jackson quando o Brigadeiro General Bernard E. Bee exortou suas próprias tropas a se reformarem gritando: "Lá está Jackson como um muro de pedra. Reúna-se atrás os virginianos! "

Em 7 de outubro, Stonewall Jackson foi promovido a major-general e assumiu o comando no Vale do Shenandoah. Usando ataques relâmpago juntamente com retiradas estratégicas, ele conduziu a campanha Valley, que resultou em retumbantes vitórias sulistas em Kernstown, Front Royal e Winchester. Ele então se retirou para o sul para verificar as forças de Fremont em Cross Keys e as tropas de Shield em Port Republic. Nesse ponto, o general Robert E. Lee (q.v.), que recentemente havia conseguido comandar o exército diante de Richmond, convocou-o para participar da Campanha dos Sete Dias. A Campanha dos Sete Dias terminou com a Batalha de Malvern Hill em 1º de julho. O exército de McClellan retirou-se da Península logo em seguida e o exército de Lee concentrou-se nas forças de Pope.

Após dois meses de escaramuças e manobras inconclusivas, Jackson abriu uma nova campanha no final de agosto, quando liderou sua "cavalaria a pé" no mais famoso de todos os seus "passeios" e destruiu a base da União em Manassas Junction. Durante a batalha garantida de Second Manassas, Jackson foi fundamental para esmagar o exército de Pope e liderou o avanço resultante em Maryland. Ele tomou Harper's Ferry em 15 de setembro e se destacou na Batalha de Antietam Creek dois dias depois.

Após sua retirada de Maryland, o Exército da Virgínia do Norte foi reorganizado em dois corpos com o recém-promovido Tenente General Jackson no comando do 2º. Sua liderança capaz, baseada em habilidade e disciplina rígida, foi demonstrada novamente em Fredericksburg, onde o Exército da Virgínia do Norte obteve outra vitória retumbante em dezembro de 1862, desta vez sobre o General Ambrose Burnside.

Jackson lutou sua última batalha em Chancellorsville, Virgínia, no início de maio de 1863. Ele conseguiu surpreender a retaguarda do exército do General Hooker ao pôr do sol em 2 de maio, após sua última "cavalgada" com sua "cavalaria a pé". Retornando da cena da batalha naquela noite, sua equipe foi confundida com um grupo de aferição da União na escuridão crescente e foi alvejada por piquetes confederados. Jackson foi gravemente ferido. Fraco pela ferida, ele contraiu pneumonia e morreu oito dias depois. A morte de Jackson, uma perda severa para o Exército Confederado, privou-o de um dos maiores soldados da América.


Após seu cruzeiro de inspeção, as duas tripulações de Stonewall Jackson foram instruídas a completar o disparo do míssil balístico Polaris, no qual ambos foram bem-sucedidos. Os preparativos finais para implantação no exterior foram concluídos em Bangor, Washington, e em abril de 1965 Stonewall Jackson iniciou sua primeira patrulha de dissuasão estratégica.

Durante a primavera de 1970, Stonewall Jackson foi transferido para a Frota do Atlântico dos Estados Unidos, sob a qual navegou para Pearl Harbor a fim de realizar uma operação especial, que ela completou novamente em 1970. Seu controle operacional foi transferido da Submarine Flotilla 5 para Submarine Flotilla 6 de maio. Após ingressar oficialmente na Frota do Atlântico, o submarino foi colocado em New London, Connecticut. Ela também participou de excursões de doutrinação de aspirantes na Academia Naval dos Estados Unidos em Annapolis, Maryland.

Em julho de 1970, Stonewall Jackson entrou no estaleiro da Electric Boat Division da General Dynamics em Groton, Connecticut, onde foi convertido para transportar o sistema de mísseis balísticos Poseidon C-3. Entre outubro de 1971 e março de 1972, tanto o Blue quanto o Gold Crew puderam realizar seus cruzeiros shakedown ao longo da costa sudeste dos Estados Unidos, equipados com a nova armadura. Ela também completou patrulhas de dissuasão no Atlântico durante seus anos de serviço.


Associação de Ex-alunos da USS Ulysses S. Grant

& ldquoUm navio sai da Marinha hoje.
Um navio de centenas
Sentirá o oceano uma última vez.
No entanto, ela leva consigo o conhecimento
Que ela serviu sua nação e seus homens
tão bem quanto qualquer navio poderia.
Este submarino que leva o nome dela
A história de todas essas embarcações
Que já tenham hasteado a bandeira de nossa nação e rsquos.
O Grant está diante de nós agora,
Vinte e sete anos servindo com orgulho.
O que antes era um casco liso e linhas imaculadas,
O mais novo e o melhor de todos.
Agora mostra as cicatrizes do soldador e da tocha rsquos
De reparos e remendos feitos por necessidade.
Nenhum jovem inocente, este navio,
Ela usa bem sua idade, com orgulho,
Pois mesmo no final,
Ela está entre as melhores. & Rdquo

A "História do USS Ulysses S. Grant SSBN 631" é impressa acima com a aprovação expressa do autor Michael Arterburn de sua publicação do "USS Ulysses S. Grant SSBN 631 Navios Log Book" publicado em 1 de junho de 2007, 3ª edição, Copyright 2002 por Arterburn Enterprises. Todos os direitos reservados.


Stonewall Jackson partiu de Vallejo em 3 de setembro de 1964 para seu cruzeiro de shakedown em Cape Kennedy, Flórida. O Blue Crew completou o treinamento com um míssil balístico Polaris disparando em 2 de dezembro de 1964 e foi substituído pelo Gold Crew. Após o lançamento bem-sucedido do míssil Polaris da Gold Crew em 16 de dezembro de 1964, Stonewall Jackson voltou ao Oceano Pacífico para completar as operações de shakedown. Ela começou as alterações e reparos pós-redução em 13 de fevereiro de 1965, depois fez os preparativos finais em Bangor, Washington, para uma implantação no exterior. Em abril de 1965, ela iniciou sua primeira patrulha de dissuasão estratégica.

Em junho de 1965, a Gold Crew substituiu a Blue Crew em Apra Harbor, Guam. Pelos próximos cinco anos Stonewall Jackson conduziu patrulhas de dissuasão do Porto de Apra.

Na primavera de 1970, Stonewall Jackson foi transferido para a Frota do Atlântico dos Estados Unidos. Em 23 de abril de 1970, ela partiu de Pearl Harbor, no Havaí, para realizar uma operação especial, antes de seguir para o Canal do Panamá. Ela transitou pelo canal em 7 de maio de 1970 e mudou o controle operacional da Flotilha Submarina 5 para a Flotilha Submarina 6, juntando-se oficialmente à Frota do Atlântico. Em 15 de maio de 1970, ela se mudou para New London, Connecticut.

Stonewall Jackson passou a segunda metade de maio de 1970 em manutenção em New London, em seguida, rumou para o sul em 1 de junho de 1970. Ela parou na Academia Naval dos Estados Unidos em Annapolis, Maryland, de 7 de junho a 10 de junho de 1970 para viagens de doutrinação de aspirantes, depois foi para o mar para operações especiais. Ela entrou em Charleston, Carolina do Sul, para descarregar mísseis balísticos durante a primeira semana de julho de 1970, em seguida, traçou um curso para New London, chegando em 10 de julho de 1970. Em 15 de julho, ela entrou no estaleiro da Divisão de Barcos Elétricos da General Dynamics em Groton, Connecticut, para conversão para transportar o sistema de mísseis balísticos Poseidon C-3.

A instalação do novo sistema de mísseis foi concluída em 29 de outubro de 1971, quando o Blue Crew começou os preparativos para colocar no mar. Entre outubro de 1971 e março de 1972, tanto o Blue Crew quanto o Gold Crew realizaram seus cruzeiros de shakedown na costa sudeste dos Estados Unidos. Stonewall Jackson retornou a Groton em 4 de março de 1971 e, em 8 de março, iniciou os reparos e alterações pós-shakedown no estaleiro General Dynamics.

Em 7 de abril de 1971, Stonewall Jackson partiu para Charleston para carregamento de mísseis balísticos em preparação para sua primeira pós-conversão e primeira patrulha de dissuasão do Atlântico.

Stonewall Jackson foi baseado em Holy Loch, Escócia, para tarefas de patrulha até meados de 1978. Ela voltou aos Estados Unidos para uma ampla revisão no Estaleiro Naval de Portsmouth e foi equipada com o sistema de mísseis Trident C-4 no Estaleiro Naval de Charleston no final de 1980. Ela então operou na Base Submarina Naval de Kings Bay, Geórgia, até sua patrulha final em 1994. & # 911 & # 93


Stonewall Jackson SSBN-634 - História

Tenente-General Thomas Jonathan Jackson
(1824-1863)

O tenente-general Thomas Jonathan Jackson foi um daqueles raros personagens históricos reivindicados por todas as pessoas - um homem de sua raça, quase tanto quanto da Confederação. Nenhuma guerra produziu uma celebridade militar mais notável, nem uma cuja fama seja mais duradoura. Ele nasceu em 21 de janeiro de 1824, em Clarksburg, Va., E seus pais, que eram de linhagem revolucionária patriótica, morreram quando ele era apenas uma criança. Ele foi criado e educado por seus parentes nos hábitos puros e simples da vida rural , ensinado em boas escolas de inglês e é descrito como um & quot estudioso diligente e laborioso, tendo uma mente forte, embora seu desenvolvimento fosse lento & quot. Mas ele foi na infância um líder entre seus colegas nos esportes atléticos da época, em que ele geralmente administrava seu lado da competição para ganhar a vitória. Com o treinamento neste país, ele se tornou um cavaleiro ousado e experiente e cultivou aquele espírito de ousadia que, sendo às vezes mantido em suspenso, se manifestava em seu serviço mexicano e, de repente, novamente na guerra confederada.

Em junho de 1842, aos dezoito anos, foi nomeado cadete na academia militar de West Point, onde, começando com as desvantagens de uma preparação inadequada, superou obstáculos com tal determinação que subia de ano para ano no estimativa do corpo docente. Ele se formou em 30 de junho de 1846, com a idade de vinte e dois anos, recebendo o posto de brevet como segundo-tenente no início da guerra mexicana, e foi obrigado a se apresentar para o serviço com a artilharia Primeira Regular, com a qual compartilhou na muitas batalhas brilhantes que o general Scott travou de Vera Cruz à Cidade do México. Ele era freqüentemente elogiado por sua conduta militar e logo recebeu sucessivas promoções por galanteria em Contreras e Churubusco. O capitão Magruder, posteriormente general confederado, o mencionou em ordens: & quotSe devoção, diligência, talento e bravura são as mais altas qualidades de um soldado, então ele tem direito à distinção que sua posse confere. & Quot Jackson era um dos voluntários no assalto a Chapultepec, e por sua ousadia houve brevetted major, que foi seu posto no final da guerra mexicana.

Seu caráter religioso, que a história conectou e irá conectar-se inseparavelmente com sua vida militar, parece ter começado a se formar na Cidade do México, onde sua atenção se voltou para o tema da variedade de crenças sobre questões religiosas. Sua amável e afetuosa biógrafa (Sra. Jackson) menciona que o Coronel Francis Taylor, o comandante da Primeira Artilharia, sob a qual Jackson servia, foi o primeiro homem a falar com ele sobre o assunto de religião pessoal. Jackson em nenhum momento de sua vida cedeu aos vícios, e em todos os hábitos era estritamente moral, mas não deu atenção particular aos deveres impostos pela igreja. Convencido agora de que essa negligência era errada, ele começou a estudar a Bíblia e continuou suas pesquisas até que finalmente se uniu (1851) à igreja presbiteriana. Sua notável devoção de hábito e sua confiança inabalável na verdade de sua fé contribuíram, é concedido, muito para o pleno desenvolvimento de seu caráter singular, bem como para seu maravilhoso sucesso.

Em 1848, o comando de Jackson foi estacionado em Fort Hamilton por dois anos, depois em Fort Meade, na Flórida, e dessa posição ele foi eleito para uma cadeira no instituto militar da Virgínia em Lexington em 1851, que ele aceitou, e renunciou à sua comissão, fez de Lexington seu lar por dez anos, e até que começou sua notável carreira na guerra confederada. Dois anos depois, em 1853, ele se casou com a Srta. Eleanor, filha do Rev. Dr. Junkin, presidente da faculdade de Washington, mas ela viveu pouco mais de um ano. Três anos depois, 16 de julho de 1857, ocorreu seu segundo casamento, com Miss Mary Anna, filha do Rev. Dr. H. R- Morrison, da Carolina do Norte, um distinto educador, cujas outras filhas se casaram com homens que alcançaram eminência civil e vida militar, entre eles o General DH Hill, o General Rufus Barringer e o Chief Justice AC Avery.

O único incidente especial ocorrido em meio à vida educacional e doméstica do Major Jackson, que fluiu serenamente a partir desta hora, foi a convocação dos cadetes do Instituto pelo governador Letcher para seguir para Harper's Ferry por ocasião do ataque de John Brown em 1859.

Durante a campanha presidencial de 1860, o major Jackson visitou a Nova Inglaterra e lá ouviu o suficiente para despertar seus temores pela segurança da União. At the election of that year he cast his vote for Breckinridge on the principle that he was a State rights man, and after Lincoln's election he favored the policy of contending in the Union rather than out of it, for the recovery of the ground that had thus been lost. The course of coercion, however, alarmed him, and the failure of the Peace congress persuaded him that if the United States persisted in their course war would certainly result. His State saw as he did, and on the passage of its ordinance of secession, the military cadets under the command of Major Jackson were ordered to the field by the governor of Virginia. The order was promptly obeyed April 21, 1861, from which date his Confederate military life began.

On November 4, 1861, newly promoted Major General Jackson said farewell to his Stonewall Brigade as he departed to take command of Confederate defenses in the Shenandoah Valley. Jackson delivered a moving speech to the soldiers, then galloped away to echoes of the Rebel Yell. He would later term the peculiar Confederate battle cry "the sweetest music I have ever heard."

Jackson's valuable service was given to Virginia in the occupation of Harper's Ferry and several subsequent small affairs, but his fame became general from the battle of First Manassas. It was at one of the crises of that first trial battle between the Federal and Confederate troops that he was given the war name of "Stonewall," by which he will be always designated. The true story will be often repeated that on being notified of the Federal advance to break the Confederate line he called out, "We will give them the bayonet," and a few minutes later the steadiness with which the brigade received the shock of battle caused the Confederate General Bee to exclaim: "There stands Jackson like a stone wall."

He was commissioned brigadier-general June 17, 1861, and was promoted to major-general October 7, 1861, with the wise assignment to command of the Valley district, which he assumed in November of that year. With a small force he began even in winter a series of bold operations in the great Virginia valley, and opened the spring campaign of 1862, on plans concerted between General Joseph E. Johnston and himself, by attacking the enemy at Kernstown, March 23rd, where he sustained his only repulse but even in the movement which resulted in a temporary defeat he caused the recall of a considerable Federal force designed to strengthen McClellan in the advance against Richmond. The next important battle was fought at McDowell, in which Jackson won a decided victory over Fremont. Then moving with celerity and sagacity he drove Banks at Front Royal, struck him again at Newtown, and at length utterly routed him. After this, turning about on Shields, he overthrew his command also, and thus, in one month's campaign, broke up the Federal forces which had been sent to "crush him." In these rapidly executed operations he had successfully fought five battles against three distinct armies, requiring four hundred miles, marching to compass the fields.

This Valley campaign of 1862 was never excelled, according to the opinions expressed by military men of high rank and long experience in war. It is told by Dr. McGuire, the chief surgeon of Jackson's command, that with swelling heart he had "heard some of the first soldiers and military students of England declare that within the past two hundred years the English speaking race has produced but five soldiers of the first rank--Marlborough, Washington, Wellington, Lee and Stonewall Jackson, and that this campaign in the valley was superior to either of those made by Napoleon in Italy." One British officer, who teaches strategy in a great European college, told Surgeon McGuire that he used this campaign as a model of strategy and tactics, dwelling upon it for several months in his lectures that it was taught in the schools of Germany, and that Von Moltke, the great strategist, declared it was without a rival in the world's history.

After this brilliant service for the Confederacy Jackson joined Lee at Richmond in time to strike McClellan's flank at the battle of Cold Harbor, and to contribute to the Federal defeat in the Seven Days' battles around Richmond. In the campaign against Pope, undertaken by Lee after he had defeated McClellan, Jackson was sent on a movement suited to his genius, capturing Manassas Junction, and foiling Pope until the main battle of Second Manassas, August 30, 1862, under Lee, despoiled that Federal general of all his former honors. The Maryland campaign immediately followed, in which Jackson led in the capture of Harper's Ferry September 15th, taking 11,500 prisoners, and an immense amount of arms and stores, just preceding the battle of Sharpsburg, in which he also fought with notable efficiency at a critical juncture. The promotion to lieutenant-general was now accorded him, October 10, 1862. At the battle of Fredericksburg, December 13, 1862, Lieutenant-General Jackson held the Confederate right against all Federal assaults. The Federal disaster in this battle resulted in the resignation of Burnside and the reorganization of the army under General Hooker in 1863.

After the most complete preparations Hooker advanced against Lee at Chancellorsville, who countervailed all the Federal general's plans by sending Jackson to find and crush his right flank, which movement was in the process of brilliant accomplishment when Jackson,who had passed his own lines to make a personal inspection of the situation, was fired upon and fatally wounded by a line of Confederates who unhappily mistook him and his escort for the enemy. The glory of the achievement which Lee and Jackson planned, fell upon General Stuart next day, who, succeeding Jackson in command, ordered that charge which became so ruinous to Hooker, with the thrilling watchword, "Remember Jackson."

General Jackson lived a few days and died lamented more than any soldier who had fallen. Lee said: "I have lost my right arm." The army felt that his place could not be easily supplied. The South was weighted with grief. After the war, when the North dispassionately studied the man they ceased to wonder at the admiration in which he was held by the world. He was buried at Lexington, Va., where a monument erected by affection marks his grave. "For centuries men will come to Lexington as a Mecca, and to this grave as a shrine, and wonderingly talk of this man and his mighty deeds. Time will only add to his great fame--his name will be honored and revered forever."

Next to Robert E. Lee himself, Thomas J. Jackson is the most revered of all Confederate commanders. A graduate of West Point (1846), he had served in the artillery in the Mexican War, earning two brevets, before resigning to accept a professorship at the Virginia Military Institute. Thought strange by the cadets, he earned "Tom Fool Jackson" and "Old Blue Light" as nicknames.

Janie Corbin and "Old Jack" Christmas 1862

Upon the outbreak of the Civil War he was commissioned a colonel in the Virginia forces and dispatched to Harpers Ferry where he was active in organizing the raw recruits until relieved by Joe Johnston. His later assignments included:

  • Colonel, CSA
    • commanding lst Brigade, Army of the Shenandoah (May - July 20, 1861)
    • commanding 1st Brigade, 2nd Corps, Army of the Potomac July 20 - October 1861)
    • commanding Valley District, Department of Northern Virginia (November 4, 1861 - June 26, 1862)
    • commanding 2nd Corps, Army of Northern Virginia June 26, 1862-May 2, 1863)

    Leaving Harpers Ferry, his brigade moved with Johnston to join Beauregard at Manassas. In the fight at 1st Bull Run they were so distinguished that both the brigade and its commander were dubbed "Stonewall" by General Barnard Bee. (However, Bee may have been complaining that Jackson was not coming to his support). The 1st Brigade was the only Confederate brigade to have its nickname become its official designation. That fall Jackson was given command of the Valley with a promotion to major general.

    That winter he launched a dismal campaign into the western part of the state that resulted in a long feud with General William Loring and caused Jackson to submit his resignation, which he was talked out of. In March he launched an attack on what he thought was a Union rear guard at Kernstown. Faulty intelligence from his cavalry chief, Turner Ashby, led to a defeat. A religious man, Jackson always regretted having fought on a Sunday. But the defeat had the desired result, halting reinforcements being sent to McClellan's army from the Valley. In May Jackson defeated Fremont's advance at McDowell and later that month launched a brilliant campaign that kept several Union commanders in the area off balance. He won victories at Front Royal, 1st Winchester, Cross Keys, and Port Republic. He then joined Lee in the defense of Richmond but displayed a lack of vigor during the Seven Days.

    Detached from Lee, he swung off to the north to face John Pope's army and after a slipshod battle at Cedar Mountain, slipped behind Pope and captured his Manassas junction supply base. He then hid along an incomplete branch railroad and awaited Lee and Longstreet. Attacked before they arrived, he held on until Longstreet could launch a devastating attack which brought a second Bull Run victory.

    In the invasion of Maryland, Jackson was detached to capture Harpers Ferry and was afterwards distinguished at Antietam with Lee. He was promoted after this and given command of the now-official 2nd Corps. It had been known as a wing or command before this. He was disappointed with the victory at Fredericksburg because it could not be followed up. In his greatest day he led his corps around the Union right flank at Chancellorsville and routed the 11th Corps. Reconnoitering that night, he was returning to his own lines when he was mortally wounded by some of his own men.

    Following the amputation of his arm, he died eight days later on May 10, 1863, from pneumonia. Lee wrote of him with deep feeling: " He has lost his left arm but I have lost my right arm." A superb commander, he had several faults. Personnel problems haunted him, as in the feuds with Loring and with Garnett after Kernstown. His choices for promotion were often not first rate. He did not give his subordinates enough latitude, which denied them the training for higher positions under Lee's loose command style. This was especially devastating in the case of his immediate successor, Richard Ewell. Although he was sometimes balky when in a subordinate position, Jackson was supreme on his own hook. Stonewall Jackson is buried in Lexington, Virginia.

    Death of Stonewall Jackson
    Virginia Military Institute General Orders
    May 1863

    Adjutant General's Office Va.
    May 11th 1863

    Major Gen. F.H. Smith
    Supt., Virginia Military Institute

    Sir:
    By Command of the Governor I have this day to perform the most painful duty of my official life in announcing to you and through you to the Faculty & Cadets of the Virginia Mil. Institute the death of the great and good--the heroic and illustrious Lieut. General T.J. Jackson at 15 minutes past 3 oclock yesterday afternoon.

    This heavy bereavement over which every true heart within the bounds of the Confederacy mourns with inexpressible sorrow--must fall if possible with heavier force upon that Noble State Institution to which he came from the battle-fields of Mexico, and where he gave to his native state the first years service of his modest and unobtrusive but public spirited and useful life.

    It would be a senseless waste of words to attempt a eulogy upon this great among the greatest of sons who have immortalized Virginia. To the Corps of Cadets of the Virginia Military Institute, what a legacy he has left you, what an example of all that is good and great and true in the character of a Christian Soldier.

    The Governor directs that the highest funeral honors be paid to his memory, that the customary outward badges of mourning be worn by all the officers and cadets of the Institution.

    By command, W.H. Richardson, A.G.
    By Command of Major Genl. Smith. A.G. Hill, Actg. Adjt., V.M.I.

    What did Jackson teach? Was he a good teacher? Was he popular with his students?

    Jackson taught at the Virginia Military Institute from August 1851 until the outbreak of Civil War in April 1861. He was responsible for the Department of Natural Philosophy (in modern terms, roughly equivalent to Physics it included astronomy, mechanics, acoustics, optics, and other sciences) and also instructed and drilled the cadets in artillery tactics. He was neither popular with cadets, many of whom ridiculed and disliked him, nor considered to be a particularly able teacher. In 1856, a group of alumni petitioned the Board of Visitors to remove Jackson from his position the issue was tabled by the Board. Francis H. Smith, VMI's Superintendent during Jackson's era, wrote the following in his History of the Virginia Military Institute

    "As Professor of Natural and Experimental Philosophy, Major Jackson was not a success. He had not the qualifications needed for so important a chair. He was no teacher, and he lacked the tact required in getting along with his classes. His genius was in the Science and Art of War. He found a field for the display of this genius when the war opened in 1861."


    VMI Cadets at Stonewall Jackson's grave, ca. 1868. From the VMI Archives photograph collection.

    Where did Jackson die? Where is Jackson's gravesite? Where is his amputated arm buried?

    Jackson died on May 10, 1863, at a field hospital near Guiney Station, VA, approximately 30 miles from the battlefield at Chancellorsville. The hospital was located in an office building on the estate of Thomas and Mary Chandler. Jackson's body was returned to Lexington, Virginia, for burial. He had spent almost ten years in the town while he was a Professor at the Virginia Military Institute. The funeral took place on May 15, 1863. He was buried in what is now known as the Stonewall Jackson Cemetery, located on Main Street. The gravesite is today a popular tourist attraction.

    Jackson's amputated arm was buried by the Rev. Beverly Tucker Lacy in his family burial plot at "Ellwood," the Lacy family estate (15 miles west of Fredericksburg) that was located about one mile from the field hospital where Jackson was initially treated. The land is now owned by the National Park Service and there is a marker noting the location of the arm.


    Mrs. Thomas Jackson

    Did Jackson marry? Did he have any children?

    Jackson married twice. On August 4, 1853, Jackson married Elinor Junkin (1825-1854), daughter of Dr. George Junkin (President of Washington College) and Julia Miller Junkin. Elinor (Ellie) died in childbirth on October 22, 1854. Their child, a son, was stillborn. On July 16, 1857, Jackson married for the second time: Mary Anna Morrison (1831-1915), daughter of Robert Hall Morrison and Mary Graham Morrison. Mary Anna's family resided in North Carolina her father was the retired President of Davidson College. Mary Anna gave birth to a daughter, Mary Graham, on April 30, 1858 the baby died less than a month later. In November 1862, Mary Anna again bore a daughter, Julia Laura, the only Jackson child to survive into adulthood. She married William E. Christian in 1885 and she died of typhoid fever in 1889, at age 26. Her children were Julia Jackson Christian (1887-1991), who married Edmund R. Preston and Thomas Jonathan Jackson Christian (1888-1952), who married three times. Both of Jackson's grandchildren had several children thus there are many living descendants of Stonewall Jackson.

    What was the name of Jackson's horse?

    In the spring of 1861, while he was in command at Harper's Ferry, Jackson acquired the horse that he rode throughout the war. Although the horse was Little Sorrel originally purchased by Jackson as a gift for his wife and initially named "Fancy," this name was short-lived. Jackson decided to keep the horse, and it was universally known as "Little Sorrel." Described as small (approximately 15 hands) and gaunt, but with remarkable powers of endurance, Little Sorrel remained Jackson's favorite and he was riding this horse when he was mortally wounded at Chancellorsville. After the war, Little Sorrel first returned to North Carolina with Mrs. Jackson, and subsequently was sent to VMI, where he grazed on the VMI Parade Ground and was a favorite of cadets. He died in March 1886, at the age of 36, and his mounted hide is now on display in the VMI Museum in Lexington, Virginia. Little Sorrel's bones were cremated and interred on the grounds of VMI in 1997.

    Who shot General Jackson?

    Jackson died as a result of "friendly fire." He was shot at Chancellorsville on May 2, 1863, by an unknown member or members of the 18th North Carolina Infantry Regiment he died on May 10th. The order to fire was given by Maj. John D. Barry, and many of his men fired at the same time. Jackson was struck by three .57 caliber bullets. Barry died two years after the war at the age of 27 his family believed his death was a result of the depression and guilt he suffered as a consequence of having given the order to fire.

    How did Jackson acquire the nickname "Stonewall"?

    This famous nickname was first given to Jackson by General Bernard Bee on the battlefield at First Manassas on July 21, 1861. It refers to Jackson's steadfastness in the face of the enemy. Jackson's demeanor inspired Bee (a friend from Jackson's years at West Point) to shout to his troops, "Look, men, there is Jackson standing like a stone wall! Let us determine to die here, and we will conquer!"

    Jackson's troops also referred to him as "Old Jack."

    Is it true that Jackson loved lemons?

    Jackson was very concerned about his health and followed a strict diet which emphasized fruits and vegetables. Although he enjoyed almost every variety of fruit, he had no special fondness for lemons in fact, peaches were his favorite. Civil War historian James I. Robertson, Jr., Jackson's biographer, states that "no member of Jackson's staff, no friend, not even his wife ever mentioned Jackson had a particular penchant for lemons," and refers to the "lemon myth." It is true that Jackson was observed eating lemons on several occasions during the war this was due only to the fact that he ate whatever fruit was available. When the Confederates captured a Union camp, lemons were sometimes among the food stores that they confiscated the Union soldiers received lemons and other fruits more frequently than did their Confederate counterparts. Despite the historical inaccuracy, the story remains popular. Tourists who visit Jackson's gravesite at Lexington, Virginia, often leave lemons as a tribute.

    What are some famous Jackson quotations? Which phrase is inscribed on the VMI Barracks?

    "You may be whatever you resolve to be" These words are inscribed over the Jackson Arch entrance to the present-day VMI Barracks. During his years as West Point cadet, Jackson began keeping a notebook in which he jotted down inspirational phrases that he believed would aid him in the development of his character and intellect. He continued to add to this book throughout the 1850's. Jackson was not (and never claimed to be) the author of most of these maxims rather, he collected ideas and phrases from the books he read. This particular principle is attributed to the Reverend Joel Hawes and first appeared in an 1851 work, Letters to Young Men, on the Formation of Character & c. Jackson's original notebook is located in the George and Catherine Davis Collection at Tulane University.

    "The Institute will be heard from today"

    These words were spoken by Jackson on the battlefield at Chancellorsville, VA, shortly before 5 p.m. on May 2, 1863. Ready for battle, he was surrounded by former students and colleagues from his years at the Virginia Military Institute they were now his officers and comrades-in-arms. Overcome by emotion, Jackson said, "the Institute will be heard from today." A few hours later, Jackson received what would prove to be a fatal wound. This quotation is today inscribed on the base of the Jackson Statue located on the grounds of VMI. For those interested in trivia--the words on the statue ("the Virginia Military Institute will be heard from today") are inaccurate Jackson said only "the Institute. " The date inscribed on the statue is also incorrect it says May 3, rather than the correct date, May 2.


    Stonewall Jackson Memorial Cemetery
    Lexington, Va

    "Let us cross over the river, and rest under the shade of the trees."

    These were Jackson's final words, spoken on his deathbed on May 10, 1863. Civil War historian James I. Robertson, Jr., author of the widely acclaimed 1997 biography of Jackson, believes that as he lay dying, Jackson envisioned scenes from his beloved boyhood home at Jackson's Mill, West Virginia. Robertson describes the context of the words as follows-

    . There, clearly in view, was Jackson's Mill! The West Fork River was still curling like a moat around the boundaries of the family home place. . Look! He could see the little boy: tired, withdrawn, alone. He knew where the lad was going. It was where he wanted to go. On the other side of the West Fork was the little grove of white poplars that was his solitude---and his refuge---from the cares of the world. The sanctuary beckoned to him now with an intensity he had never felt before. "Let us cross over the river," he exclaimed, "and rest under the shade of the trees." Tom Jackson had come home. (Robertson, pg. 753)

    new.vmi.edu
    www.oldgloryprints.com
    www.lib.utexas.edu
    www.cmstory.org
    www.clarksburg.com
    www.allenscreations.com
    www.southernartcreations.com
    americanhistory.si.edu
    www.civilwarrart.com
    www.americaslibrary.gov
    www.hammergalleries.com
    www.lexingtonvirginia.com

    -- Gen. Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson

    'Then, Sir, we will give them the bayonet!'

    -- Stonewall Jackson’s reply to Colonel B.E Bee
    when he reported that the enemy were beating them back.
    At the first battle of Bull Run, July 1861.

    'Under divine blessing, we must rely on the bayonet when firearms cannot be furnished'

    -- Stonewall Jackson,
    letter accompanying his requisition for 1000 pikes. April 1861

    'Don't say it's impossible! Turn your command over to the next officer. If he can't do it, I'll find someone who can, even if I have to take him from the ranks!'

    -- General Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson

    'I yield to no man in sympathy for the gallant men under my command but I am obliged to sweat them tonight, so that I may save their blood tomorrow.'

    -- General Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson

    'Who could not conquer with such troops as these?'

    -- General Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson

    'Once you get them running, you stay right on top of them, and that way a small force can defeat a large one every time. Only thus can a weaker country cope with a stronger it must make up in activity what it lacks in strength. '


    Civil War [ edit | editar fonte]

    The Colonel Lewis T. Moore house, which served as the Winchester Headquarters of Lt. Gen. T. J. "Stonewall" Jackson (photo 2007).

    In 1861, as the American Civil War broke out, Jackson became a drill master for some of the many new recruits in the Confederate Army. On April 27, 1861, Virginia Governor John Letcher ordered Colonel Jackson to take command at Harpers Ferry, where he would assemble and command the famous "Stonewall Brigade", consisting of the 2nd, 4th, 5th, 27th, and 33rd Virginia Infantry regiments. All of these units were from the Shenandoah Valley region of Virginia, where Jackson located his headquarters throughout the first two years of the war. Jackson became known for his relentless drilling of his troops he believed discipline was vital to success on the battlefield. Following the Great Train Raid of 1861 he was promoted to brigadier general on June 17. ⎡]

    First Bull Run [ edit | editar fonte]

    Jackson rose to prominence and earned his most famous nickname at the First Battle of Bull Run (First Manassas) in July 1861. As the Confederate lines began to crumble under heavy Union assault, Jackson's brigade provided crucial reinforcements on Henry House Hill, demonstrating the discipline he instilled in his men. Brigue. Gen. Barnard Elliott Bee, Jr., exhorted his own troops to re-form by shouting, "There is Jackson standing like a stone wall. Let us determine to die here, and we will conquer. Follow me." ⎢] There is some controversy over Bee's statement and intent, which could not be clarified because he was killed almost immediately after speaking and none of his subordinate officers wrote reports of the battle. Major Burnett Rhett, chief of staff to General Joseph E. Johnston, claimed that Bee was angry at Jackson's failure to come immediately to the relief of Bee's and Bartow's brigades while they were under heavy pressure. Those who subscribe to this opinion believe that Bee's statement was meant to be pejorative: "Look at Jackson standing there like a damned stone wall!" ⎣] Regardless of the controversy and the delay in relieving Bee, Jackson's brigade, which would henceforth be known as the Stonewall Brigade, stopped the Union assault and suffered more casualties than any other Southern brigade that day. ⎤] After the battle, Jackson was promoted to major general (October 7, 1861) ⎡] and given command of the Valley District, with headquarters in Winchester.

    Valley Campaign [ edit | editar fonte]

    In the spring of 1862, Union Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan's Army of the Potomac approached Richmond from the southeast in the Peninsula Campaign, Maj. Gen. Irvin McDowell's large corps were poised to hit Richmond from the north, and Maj. Gen. Nathaniel P. Banks's army threatened the Shenandoah Valley. Jackson was ordered by Richmond to operate in the Valley to defeat Banks' threat and prevent McDowell's troops from reinforcing McClellan.

    Jackson possessed the attributes to succeed against his poorly coordinated and sometimes timid opponents: a combination of great audacity, excellent knowledge and shrewd use of the terrain, and the ability to inspire his troops to great feats of marching and fighting.

    The campaign started with a tactical defeat at Kernstown on March 23, 1862, when faulty intelligence led him to believe he was attacking a much smaller force than was actually present, but it was a strategic victory for the Confederacy, forcing President Abraham Lincoln to keep Banks' forces in the Valley and McDowell's 30,000-man corps near Fredericksburg, subtracting about 50,000 soldiers from McClellan's invasion force. In addition, it was Jackson's only defeat in the Valley.

    By adding Maj. Gen. Richard S. Ewell's large division and Maj. Gen. Edward "Allegheny" Johnson's small division, Jackson increased his army to 17,000 men. He was still significantly outnumbered, but attacked portions of his divided enemy individually at McDowell, defeating both Brig. Gens. Robert H. Milroy and Robert C. Schenck. He defeated Banks at Front Royal and Winchester, ejecting him from the Valley. Lincoln decided that the defeat of Jackson was an immediate priority (though Jackson's orders were solely to keep Union forces occupied away from Richmond). They ordered Irvin McDowell to send 20,000 men to Front Royal and Maj. Gen. John C. Frémont to move to Harrisonburg. If both forces could converge at Strasburg, Jackson's only escape route up the Valley would be cut.

    After a series of maneuvers, Jackson defeated Frémont's command at Cross Keys and Brig. Gen. James Shields at Port Republic on June 8𔃇. Union forces were withdrawn from the Valley.

    It was a classic military campaign of surprise and maneuver. Jackson pressed his army to travel <Expression error: Unexpected < operator.|Expression error: Unexpected < operator.|Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "[".|Expression error: Unexpected < operator.>> miles (Template:Convert/km) in 48 days of marching and won five significant victories with a force of about 17,000 against a combined force of 60,000. Stonewall Jackson's reputation for moving his troops so rapidly earned them the oxymoronic nickname "foot cavalry". He became the most celebrated soldier in the Confederacy (until he was eventually eclipsed by Lee) and lifted the morale of the Southern public.

    Peninsula [ edit | editar fonte]

    McClellan's Peninsula Campaign toward Richmond stalled at the Battle of Seven Pines on May 31 and June 1. After the Valley Campaign ended in mid-June, Jackson and his troops were called to join Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia in defense of the capital. By utilizing a railroad tunnel under the Blue Ridge Mountains and then transporting troops to Hanover County on the Virginia Central Railroad, Jackson and his forces made a surprise appearance in front of McClellan at Mechanicsville. Reports had last placed Jackson's forces in the Shenandoah Valley their presence near Richmond added greatly to the Union commander's overestimation of the strength and numbers of the forces before him. This proved a crucial factor in McClellan's decision to re-establish his base at a point many miles downstream from Richmond on the James River at Harrison's Landing, essentially a retreat that ended the Peninsula Campaign and prolonged the war almost three more years.

    Jackson's troops served well under Lee in the series of battles known as the Seven Days Battles, but Jackson's own performance in those battles is generally considered to be poor. ⎥] He arrived late at Mechanicsville and inexplicably ordered his men to bivouac for the night within clear earshot of the battle. He was late and disoriented at Gaines' Mill. He was late again at Savage's Station, and at White Oak Swamp, he failed to employ fording places to cross White Oak Swamp Creek, attempting for hours to rebuild a bridge, which limited his involvement to an ineffectual artillery duel and a missed opportunity. At Malvern Hill, Jackson participated in the futile, piecemeal frontal assaults against entrenched Union infantry and massed artillery and suffered heavy casualties, but this was a problem for all of Lee's army in that ill-considered battle. The reasons for Jackson's sluggish and poorly coordinated actions during the Seven Days are disputed, although a severe lack of sleep after the grueling march and railroad trip from the Shenandoah Valley was probably a significant factor. Both Jackson and his troops were completely exhausted.

    Second Bull Run to Fredericksburg [ edit | editar fonte]

    Jackson and Sorrel, painting by David Bendann.

    The military reputations of Lee's corps commanders are often characterized as Stonewall Jackson representing the audacious, offensive component of Lee's army, whereas his counterpart, James Longstreet, more typically advocated and executed defensive strategies and tactics. Jackson has been described as the army's hammer, Longstreet its anvil. ⎦] In the Northern Virginia Campaign of August 1862, this stereotype did not hold true. Longstreet commanded the Right Wing (later to become known as the First Corps) and Jackson commanded the Left Wing. Jackson started the campaign under Lee's orders with a sweeping flanking maneuver that placed his corps into the rear of Union Maj. Gen. John Pope's Army of Virginia, but he then took up a defensive position and effectively invited Pope to assault him. On August 28󈞉, the start of the Second Battle of Bull Run, Pope launched repeated assaults against Jackson as Longstreet and the remainder of the Army marched north to reach the battlefield.

    On August 30, Pope came to believe that Jackson was starting to retreat, and Longstreet took advantage of this by launching a massive assault on the Union army's left with over 25,000 men. Although the Union troops put up a furious defense, Pope's army was forced to retreat in a manner similar to the embarrassing Union defeat at First Bull Run, fought on roughly the same battleground.

    When Lee decided to invade the North in the Maryland Campaign, Jackson took Harpers Ferry, then hastened to join the rest of the army at Sharpsburg, Maryland, where they fought McClellan in the Battle of Antietam. Antietam was primarily a defensive battle fought against superior odds, although McClellan failed to exploit his advantage. Jackson's men bore the brunt of the initial attacks on the northern end of the battlefield and, at the end of the day, successfully resisted a breakthrough on the southern end when Jackson's subordinate, Maj. Gen. A.P. Hill, arrived at the last minute from Harpers Ferry. The Confederate forces held their position, but the battle was extremely bloody for both sides, and Lee withdrew the Army of Northern Virginia back across the Potomac River, ending the invasion. Jackson was promoted to lieutenant general. On October 10 his command was redesignated the Second Corps.

    Before the armies camped for winter, Jackson's Second Corps held off a strong Union assault against the right flank of the Confederate line at the Battle of Fredericksburg, in what became a decisive Confederate victory. Just before the battle, Jackson was delighted to receive a letter about the birth of his daughter, Julia Laura Jackson, on November 23. ⎧] Also before the battle, Maj. Gen. J.E.B. Stuart, Lee's dashing and well-dressed cavalry commander, presented to Jackson a fine general's frock that he had ordered from one of the best tailors in Richmond. Jackson's previous coat was threadbare and colorless from exposure to the elements, its buttons removed by admiring ladies. Jackson asked his staff to thank Stuart, saying that although the coat was too handsome for him, he would cherish it as a souvenir. His staff insisted that he wear it to dinner, which caused scores of soldiers to rush to see him in uncharacteristic garb. So embarrassed was Jackson with the attention that he did not wear the new uniform for months. ⎨]

    Chancellorsville [ edit | editar fonte]

    At the Battle of Chancellorsville, the Army of Northern Virginia was faced with a serious threat by the Army of the Potomac and its new commanding general, Major General Joseph Hooker. General Lee decided to employ a risky tactic to take the initiative and offensive away from Hooker's new southern thrust—he decided to divide his forces. Jackson and his entire corps were sent on an aggressive flanking maneuver to the right of the Union lines. This flanking movement would be one of the most successful and dramatic of the war. While riding with his infantry in a wide berth well south and west of the Federal line of battle, Jackson employed Maj. Gen. Fitzhugh Lee's cavalry to provide for better reconnaissance in regards to the exact location of the Union right and rear. The results were far better than even Jackson could have hoped. Lee found the entire right side of the Federal lines in the middle of open field, guarded merely by two guns that faced westward, as well as the supplies and rear encampments. The men were eating and playing games in carefree fashion, completely unaware that an entire Confederate corps was less than a mile away. What happened next is given in Lee's own words:

    So impressed was I with my discovery, that I rode rapidly back to the point on the Plank road where I had left my cavalry, and back down the road Jackson was moving, until I met "Stonewall" himself. "General," said I, "if you will ride with me, halting your column here, out of sight, I will show you the enemy's right, and you will perceive the great advantage of attacking down the Old turnpike instead of the Plank road, the enemy's lines being taken in reverse. Bring only one courier, as you will be in view from the top of the hill." Jackson assented, and I rapidly conducted him to the point of observation. There had been no change in the picture.

    I only knew Jackson slightly. I watched him closely as he gazed upon Howard's troops. It was then about 2 P.M. His eyes burned with a brilliant glow, lighting up a sad face. His expression was one of intense interest, his face was colored slightly with the paint of approaching battle, and radiant at the success of his flank movement. To the remarks made to him while the unconscious line of blue was pointed out, he did not reply once during the five minutes he was on the hill, and yet his lips were moving. From what I have read and heard of Jackson since that day, I know now what he was doing then. Oh! "beware of rashness," General Hooker. Stonewall Jackson is praying in full view and in rear of your right flank! While talking to the Great God of Battles, how could he hear what a poor cavalryman was saying. "Tell General Rodes," said he, suddenly whirling his horse towards the courier, "to move across the Old plank road halt when he gets to the Old turnpike, and I will join him there." One more look upon the Federal lines, and then he rode rapidly down the hill, his arms flapping to the motion of his horse, over whose head it seemed, good rider as he was, he would certainly go. I expected to be told I had made a valuable personal reconnaissance—saving the lives of many soldiers, and that Jackson was indebted to me to that amount at least. Perhaps I might have been a little chagrined at Jackson's silence, and hence commented inwardly and adversely upon his horsemanship. Alas! I had looked upon him for the last time.

    – Fitzhugh Lee, address to the Association of the Army of Northern Virginia, 1879

    Jackson immediately returned to his corps and arranged his divisions into a line of battle to charge directly into the oblivious Federal right. The Confederates marched silently until they were merely several hundred feet from the Union position, then released a bloodthirsty cry and full charge. Many of the Federals were captured without a shot fired, the rest were driven into a full rout. Jackson pursued relentlessly back toward the center of the Federal line until dusk.

    The plantation office building where Stonewall Jackson died in Guinea Station, Virginia

    Darkness ended the assault. As Jackson and his staff were returning to camp on May 2, they were mistaken for a Union cavalry force by a Confederate North Carolina regiment who shouted, "Halt, who goes there?," but fired before evaluating the reply. Jackson was hit by three bullets, two in the left arm and one in the right hand. Several other men in his staff were killed in addition to many horses. Darkness and confusion prevented Jackson from getting immediate care. He was dropped from his stretcher while being evacuated because of incoming artillery rounds. Because of his injuries, Jackson's left arm had to be amputated by Dr. Hunter McGuire ⎩] . Jackson was moved to Thomas C. Chandler's <Expression error: Unexpected < operator.|Expression error: Unexpected < operator.|Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "[".|Expression error: Unexpected < operator.>> acres (Template:Convert/km2) plantation named "Fairfield." He was offered Chandler's home for recovery, but Jackson refused and suggested using Chandler's plantation office building instead. He was thought to be out of harm's way, but unknown to the doctors, he already had classic symptoms of pneumonia, complaining of a sore chest. This soreness was mistakenly thought to be the result of his rough handling in the battlefield evacuation.


    Legado

    Jackson is considered one of the great characters of the Civil War. He was profoundly religious, a deacon in the Presbyterian Church. He disliked fighting on Sunday, though that did not stop him from doing so. He loved his wife very much and sent her tender letters. He generally wore old, worn-out clothes rather than a fancy uniform, and often looked more like a moth-eaten private than a corps commander. He was also known to regularly chew lemons during marches, a taste for which he had acquired during his time in Mexico. In command Jackson was extremely secretive about his plans and extremely punctilious about military discipline.

    The South mourned his death he was greatly admired there. Many theorists through the years have postulated that if Jackson had lived, Lee might have prevailed at Gettysburg. Certainly Jackson's iron discipline and brilliant tactical sense were sorely missed, and might well have carried an extremely close fought battle. He is buried at Lexington, Virginia, near VMI, in the Stonewall Jackson Memorial Cemetery. He is memorialized on Georgia's Stone Mountain, in Richmond on historic Monument Avenue, and in many other places.

    After the War, his wife and young daughter Julia moved from Lexington to North Carolina. Mary Anna Jackson wrote two books about her husband's life, including some of his letters. She never remarried, and was known as the "Widow of the Confederacy", living until 1915. His daughter Julia married, and bore children, but she died of typhoid fever at the age of 26 years.

    A former Confederate soldier who admired Jackson, Captain Thomas R. Ranson of Staunton, Virginia, also remembered the tragic life of Jackson's mother. He went to the tiny mountain hamlet of Ansted in Fayette County, West Virginia, and had a marble marker placed over the unmarked grave of Julia Neale Jackson in Westlake Cemetery, to make sure that the site was not lost forever.

    West Virginia's Stonewall Jackson State Park is named in his honor. Nearby, at Stonewall Jackson's historical childhood home, his Uncle's grist mill is the centerpiece of a historical site at the Jackson's Mill Center for Lifelong Learning and State 4-H Camp. The facility, located near Weston, serves as a special campus for West Virginia University and the WVU Extension Service.


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